We present the latest results obtained with the wide-field submillimeter camera ArTeMiS that is operating on APEX since July 2013. This camera is presently equipped with 1870 pixels at 350 μm and 800 pixels at 450 μm simultaneously. ArTéMiS is a PI-camera open to the ESO and Swedish community. It has already taken a part in the 2016-2017 scientific results of APEX. So far, it offers the best performance in terms of mapping speed at 350 and 450 μm in the southern hemisphere.
Major improvements of the APEX telescope have been achieved at the end of 2017, requiring a complete removal of the instruments in the C-Cabin. In the meantime, the ArTeMiS camera has been kept safe at the ALMA Operations Support Facility (OSF) building. We took advantage of this re-installation to improve a bit more the optical coupling of detectors. We present here the present status of the camera.
Since APEX operation is now guaranteed until the end of 2022, our prospects are to install in time new detectors presently developed at CEA/Léti in the frame of R&D developments made for the future SPICA space mission. Those detectors, which have new polarization capabilities, are also presented.
A new photonic camera has been developed in the framework of the ArTéMis project (Bolometers architecture for large field of view ground based telescopes in the sub-millimeter). This camera scans the sky in the sub-millimeter range at simultaneously three different wavelengths, namely 200 μm, 350 μm, 450 μm, and is installed inside the APEX telescope located at 5100m above sea level in Chile. Bolometric detectors cooled to 300 mK are used in the camera, which is integrated in an original cryostat developed at the low temperature laboratory (SBT) of the INAC institut. This cryostat contains filters, optics, mirrors and detectors which have to be implemented according to mass, size and stiffness requirements. As a result the cryostat exhibits an unusual geometry. The inner structure of the cryostat is a 40 K plate which acts as an optical bench and is bound to the external vessel through two hexapods, one fixed and the other one mobile thanks to a ball bearing. Once the cryostat is cold, this characteristic enabled all the different elements to be aligned with the optical axis. The cryogenic chain is built around a pulse tube cooler (40 K and 4 K) coupled to a double stage helium sorption cooler (300 mK). The cryogenic and vacuum processes are managed by a Siemens PLC and all the data are showed and stored on a CEA SCADA system. This paper describes the mechanical and thermal design of the cryostat, its command control, and the first thermal laboratory tests. This work was carried out in collaboration with the Astrophysics laboratory SAp of the IRFU institut. SAp and SBT have installed the camera in July 2013 inside the Cassegrain cabin of APEX.
ArTeMiS is a sub-millimetre camera to be operated, on the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment Telescope (APEX). The ultimate goal is to observe simultaneously in three atmospheric spectral windows in the region of 200, 350 and 450 microns. We present the filtering scheme, which includes the cryostat window, thermal rejection elements, band separation and spectral isolation, which has been adopted for this instrument. This was achieved using a combination of scattering, Yoshinaga filters, organic dyes and Ulrich type embedded metallic mesh devices. Design of the quasi-optical mesh components has been developed by modelling with an in-house developed code. For the band separating dichroics, which are used with an incidence angle of 35 deg, further modelling has been performed with HFSS (Ansoft). Spectral characterization of the components for the 350 and 450 bands have been performed with a Martin-Puplett Polarizing Fourier Transform Spectrometer. While for the first commissioning and observation campaign, one spectral band only was operational (350 microns), we report on the design of the 200, 350 and 450 micron bands.
ArTeMiS is a submillimeter camera planned to work simultaneously at 450 μm, 350 μm and 200 μm by use of 3 focal planes of, respectively, 8, 8 and 4 bolometric arrays, each one made of 16 x18 pixels. In July 2013, with a preliminary setting reduced to 4 modules and to the 350 μm band, ArTeMiS was installed successfully at the Cassegrain focus of APEX, a 12 m antenna located on the Chajnantor plateau, Chile. After the summary of the scientific requirements, we describe the main lines of the ArTeMiS nominal optical design with its rationale and performances. This optical design is highly constrained by the room allocation available in the Cassegrain cabin. It is an all-reflective design including a retractable pick off mirror, a warm Fore Optics to image the focal plane of the telescope inside the cryostat, and the cold optics. The large size of the field of view at the focal plane of the telescope, 72 mm x 134 mm for the 350 μm and 450 μm beams, leads to the use of biconical toroidal mirrors. In this way, the nominal image quality obtained on the bolometric arrays is only just diffraction limited at some corners of the field of view. To keep a final PSF as much uniform as possible across the field of view, we have used the technic of manufacturing by diamond turning to machine the mirrors. This approach, while providing high accuracy on the shape of the mirrors, made easier the control of the two sub units, the Fore Optics and the cold optics, in the visible domain and at room temperature. Moreover, the use of the similar material (Aluminium alloy 6061) for the optical bench and the mirrors with their mount ensures a homothetic shrinking during the cooling down. The alignment protocol, drew up at the early step of the study, is also presented. It required the implementation of two additional mechanisms inside the cryostat to check the optical axis of the cold optics, in the real conditions of operation of ArTeMiS. In this way, it was possible to pre-align the Fore Optics sub unit with respect to the cold optics. Finally, despite the high constraints of the operating conditions of APEX, this protocol allowed to align ArTeMiS with respect to the telescope in a single adjustment. The first images obtained on the sky, Saturn with its rings, are given.
ArTeMiS is a wide-field submillimeter camera operating at three wavelengths simultaneously (200, 350 and 450 μm). A preliminary version of the instrument equipped with the 350 μm focal plane, has been successfully installed and tested on APEX telescope in Chile during the 2013 and 2014 austral winters. This instrument is developed by CEA (Saclay and Grenoble, France), IAS (France) and University of Manchester (UK) in collaboration with ESO. We introduce the mechanical and optical design, as well as the cryogenics and electronics of the ArTéMiS camera. ArTeMiS detectors consist in Si:P:B bolometers arranged in 16×18 sub-arrays operating at 300 mK. These detectors are similar to the ones developed for the Herschel PACS photometer but they are adapted to the high optical load encountered at APEX site. Ultimately, ArTeMiS will contain 4 sub-arrays at 200 μm and 2×8 sub-arrays at 350 and 450 μm. We show preliminary lab measurements like the responsivity of the instrument to hot and cold loads illumination and NEP calculation. Details on the on-sky commissioning runs made in 2013 and 2014 at APEX are shown. We used planets (Mars, Saturn, Uranus) to determine the flat-field and to get the flux calibration. A pointing model was established in the first days of the runs. The average relative pointing accuracy is 3 arcsec. The beam at 350 μm has been estimated to be 8.5 arcsec, which is in good agreement with the beam of the 12 m APEX dish. Several observing modes have been tested, like “On- The-Fly” for beam-maps or large maps, spirals or raster of spirals for compact sources. With this preliminary version of ArTeMiS, we concluded that the mapping speed is already more than 5 times better than the previous 350 μm instrument at APEX. The median NEFD at 350 μm is 600 mJy.s1/2, with best values at 300 mJy.s1/2. The complete instrument with 5760 pixels and optimized settings will be installed during the first half of 2015.
The ArTeMiS submillimetric camera will observe simultaneously the sky at 450, 350 and 200 μm using 3 different focal
planes made of 2304, 2304 and 1152 bolometric pixels respectively. This camera will be mounted in the Cassegrain
cabin of APEX, a 12 m antenna located on the Chajnantor plateau, Chile.
To realize the bolometric arrays, we have adapted the Silicon processing technology used for the Herschel-PACS
photometer to account for higher incident fluxes and longer wavelengths from the ground. In addition, an autonomous
cryogenic system has been designed to cool the 3 focal planes down to 300 mK. Preliminary performances obtained in
laboratory with the first of 3 focal planes are presented.
Latest results obtained in 2009 with the P-ArTeMiS prototype camera are also discussed, including massive protostellar
cores and several star forming regions that have been clearly identified and mapped.
The 6 K cooled primary mirror of the SPICA observatory, to be launched in 2018, allows a photometry gain in
sensitivity in the far infrared of more than two orders of magnitude when compared with current instrumentation in
space. All the proposed detector solutions will have to deploy radically different solutions from previous developments
to cope with the extremely low background and very low power budgets available at all the temperature stages. We
present the current design of very large "all Silicon" filled Bolometer Arrays cooled below 100 mK, and the solutions we
develop for the BASIC (Bolometer Arrays for the All Silicon SAFARI Imaging Camera) focal planes of SAFARI. They
will cover simultaneously three wavelength bands between 30 and 210 μm.
ArTeMiS is a camera designed to operate on large ground based submillimetric telescopes in the 3 atmospheric windows
200, 350 and 450 µm. The focal plane of this camera will be equipped with 5760 bolometric pixels cooled down at 300
mK with an autonomous cryogenic system. The pixels have been manufactured, based on the same technology processes
as used for the Herschel-PACS space photometer. We review in this paper the present status and the future plans of this
A prototype camera, named P-ArTeMiS, has been developed and successfully tested on the KOSMA telescope in 2006 at
Gornergrat 3100m, Switzerland. Preliminary results were presented at the previous SPIE conference in Orlando (Talvard
et al, 2006). Since then, the prototype camera has been proposed and successfully installed on APEX, a 12 m antenna
operated by the Max Planck Institute für Radioastronomie, the European Southern Observatory and the Onsala Space
Observatory on the Chajnantor site at 5100 m altitude in Chile. Two runs have been achieved in 2007, first in March and
the latter in November. We present in the second part of this paper the first processed images obtained on star forming
regions and on circumstellar and debris disks. Calculated sensitivities are compared with expectations. These illustrate
the improvements achieved on P-ArTeMiS during the 3 experimental campaigns.
Astronomical observations at sub-millimetre wavelengths are limited either by the angular resolution of the telescope or
by the sensitivity and field of view of the detector array. New generation of radio telescopes, such as the ALMA-type
antennas on Chajnantor plateau in Chile, can overcome these limitations if they are equipped with large detector arrays
made of thousands of sensitive bolometer pixels.
Instrumentation developments undertaken at CEA and based on the all silicon technology of CEA/Leti are able to
provide such large detector arrays. The ArTeMiS project consists in developing a camera for ground-based telescopes
that operates in two sets of atmospheric windows at 200-450 μm (channel 1) and 800-1200 μm (channel 2).
ArTeMiS-1 consists in grid bolometer arrays similar to those developed by CEA for the Herschel Space Observatory. A
prototype camera operating in this first atmospheric window was installed and successfully tested in March 2006 on the
KOSMA telescope at Gornergrat (Switzerland) in collaboration with the University of Cologne. ArTeMiS-2 will consist
either in antenna-coupled bolometer arrays or specific mesh bolometer arrays.
By the end of 2008, ArTeMiS cameras could be operated on 10m-class telescopes on the Chajnantor ALMA site, e.g.,
APEX, opening new scientific prospects in the study of the early phases of star formation and in cosmology, in the study
of the formation of large structures in the universe. At longer term, installation of such instrumentation at Dome-C in
Antarctica is also under investigation. The present status of the ArTeMiS project is detailed in this paper.
A new kind of bolometric architecture has been successfully developed for the PACS photometer onboard the Herschel submillimeter observatory. These new generation CCD-like arrays are buttable and enable the conception of large fully sampled focal planes. We present a feasibility study of the adaptation of these bolometer arrays to ground-based submillimeter telescopes. We have developed an electro-thermal numerical model to simulate the performances of the bolometers under specific ground-based conditions (different wavelengths and background powers for example). This simulation permits to determine the optimal parameters for each condition and shows that the bolometers can be background limited in each transmission window between 200 and 450 microns. We also present a new optical system that enables to have a maximum absorption of the bolometer in each atmospheric windows. The description of this system and measurements are shown.
The development program of the flight model imaging camera for the PACS instrument on-board the Herschel
spacecraft is nearing completion. This camera has two channels covering the 60 to 210 microns wavelength
range. The focal plane of the short wavelength channel is made of a mosaic of 2×4 3-sides buttable bolometer
arrays (16×16 pixels each) for a total of 2048 pixels, while the long wavelength channel has a mosaic of 2 of the
same bolometer arrays for a total of 512 pixels. The 10 arrays have been fabricated, individually tested and
integrated in the photometer. They represent the first filled arrays of fully collectively built bolometers with
a cold multiplexed readout, allowing for a properly sampled coverage of the full instrument field of view. The
camera has been fully characterized and the ground calibration campaign will take place after its delivery to
the PACS consortium in mid 2006. The bolometers, working at a temperature of 300 mK, have a NEP close
to the BLIP limit and an optical bandwidth of 4 to 5 Hz that will permit the mapping of large sky areas.
This paper briefly presents the concept and technology of the detectors as well as the cryocooler and the warm
electronics. Then we focus on the performances of the integrated focal planes (responsivity, NEP, low frequency
Since 1997, CEA/SAP and CEA/LETI/SLIR have been developing monolithic Si bolometer arrays sensitive in the far infrared and submillimiter range for space observations. Two focal planes, 32x64 and 16x32 pixel arrays, are designed and manufactured for the PACS (Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer) instrument of the Herschel observatory, to be launched in 2007. The two arrays cover respectively the 60-130 μm and 130-210 μm ranges. The goal of these large bolometer arrays is to achieve observations in a Background limited NEP around 10-16 W.Hz-1/2. The detector physics and manufacture techniques of the different stages of these arrays are first presented. Then we describe the read-out and multiplexing cold electronics (300mK) that make possible several functional modes (temporal and fixed pattern noise reduction,...). The latest experimental measurements carried out with the complete detector system at the nominal temperature are presented and performances are discussed.
Since 1997, CEA/DSM/DAPNIA/ Service d?Astrophysique in Saclay and CEA/DTA/LETI in Grenoble are developing filled Bolometer arrays sensitive in far infrared and submillimeter. These arrays are based on an all Silicon technology development, and are optimized for imaging in high photon background conditions. A 32 × 64 and a 16 × 32 pixels arrays are under development for the far infrared photometer in the PACS instrument, which is part of the Herschel payload. We present details of the design of these arrays. We describe the performance measurements obtained so far, and give some prospects for future application
The CIRS instrument is the Infrared spectrometer of the CASSINI orbiter. The flight and spare models performances of the IR Photovoltaic detector arrays are presented here. We discuss the efforts made to avoid 1/f noise dependent diodes to meet the severe requirements of this mission to Saturn.
For the Cassini probe, focal plane number four of the Composite IR Spectrometer is equipped with a HgCdTe photovoltaic linear array. This 10 X 1 array detects in the 1100 to 1400 cm-1 wavenumber range with 200 X 200 micrometers 2 diodes at a pitch of 215 micrometers . Although background flux is near zero, peak detectivity, which is set by intrinsic diode noise, reaches 7.2 1011 cmHz.5W-1 at -30 mV bias whereas the theoretical limit is 7.8 1011 cmHz.5W-1. These performances are obtained by a simple ion implanted n/p planar technology on a liquid phase HgCdTe epilayer grown on lattice matched CdZnTe substrate.