The aim of the paper is to analyze the fluorescence characteristics of the neritic water on the Romanian Black Sea coast
under anthropogenic influences. A fluorescence LIDAR, based on excimer (308 nm) and a dye laser (367, 460 nm) was
used in order to map the Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) and chlorophyll variations in a marine area. Onboard ship
campaign was performed during spring time to evidence the algal blooming. Physicochemical parameters of water and
chlorophyll concentration were determined also by laboratory measurements of collected samples. The organic
compounds and phytoplankton were characterized based on Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) and Raman scattering.
Highly polluted areas were noted and mapped along the ship trajectory.
The paper presents preliminary laboratory results in an investigation by laser induce fluorescence of the
environmental effects on the seawater. The aim of the paper was to analyze the fluorescence of the polluted water in the
south area of the Romanian Black Sea coast. The characteristics of the spectral fluorescence of water (intensity, shape,
bands) were analysed in connection with the extraction area and pollutants type. The fluorescence spectra are compared
with those of natural seawater samples measured at different laser excitation wavelengths (266 nm, 355 nm and 532 nm).
Fluorescence spectra of DOM (Dissolved Organic Matter), oil products (OP) and phytoplankton were characterized in
correlation with the band of the water Raman scattering and by their specific fluorescence decay. Seawater physicochemical
parameters and chlorophyll concentration were taking into account in seawater pollution analysis.
LIDAR systems have demonstrated their ability to map aerosol variations throughout the atmospheric column and therefore they have has become a central technology in current strategies for tropospheric aerosol research. Its use is complicated, however, by the fact that the lidar signal contains a convolution of two basic optical properties of the aerosol particles: the backscatter coefficient and the extinction coefficient. A quantitative retrieval of either property requires knowledge of their relationship along the laser path which is referred as lidar ratio. If the lidar ratio can not be measured by high spectral resolution lidar, or Raman lidar, then either an assumed value of LRa must be used in the lidar retrieval, leading to very large uncertainties in light extinction, or models can be used for determination of LRa profile.
Our research refers to the development of an iterative hybrid regularization technique for elastic backscatter lidar data processing and retrieval of the aerosols optical parameters using the atmospheric model, Mie model and Fernald-Klett, but also Ackermann algorithm for lidar ratio calculation based on relative humidity profile. This study focuses on a numerical investigation about the lidar ratio of tropospheric aerosols characterizing Romanian atmosphere. The model can be also used for other type of atmosphere in order to improve the derivation of aerosols optical parameters from elastic backscatter lidar data when no other information than meteorological data are available.
Recently, the Romanian lidar group implemented a routine monitoring scheme over Bucharest for the observation of aerosol optical properties in the troposphere. The measurements are provided twice per week at specific times (at 9:00 UT and 13:00 UT) for at least 2 hours per observation time. The purpose is to establish a quantitative comprehensive database of both horizontal and vertical distribution of aerosol over Bucharest and surrounding industrial areas, using a Nd:YAG laser based lidar system, operating at 1064 and 532 nm wavelengths, which provides in real time aerosol profiles up to 10 Km high, with a 6 m spatial resolution. In this paper, a statistical analysis obtained from several months of regular measurements is presented, ordinary and special events being outlined. For further analysis, the integration in atmospheric transport models of aerosol's spatial and temporal distribution derived from lidar measurements and complementary meteorological data was pursued. The novelty of this technique consists in using the OpenGIS technology (Open Geographical Information Systems), which permits the visualization and complex analysis of pollution in natural environment: numerical model of terrain, vegetation, meteorological and atmospheric characteristics. Lidar data are integrated as location type, direction and sense, as from the view-point of their temporal distribution. The position information is processed through an azimuthal projection GIS data server, considering the radial distribution of data centered to the coordinate point of installation location. Several codes were modified in order to obtain forecast aerosols trajectories and to evidence the impact on nearby regions.
The synergistic use of multi-temporal and multi-spectral remote sensing data offers the possibility of monitoring of environment quality in the vicinity of nuclear power plants (NPP). Advanced digital processing techniques applied to several LANDSAT, MODIS and ASTER data are used to assess the extent and magnitude of radiation and non-radiation effects on the water, near field soil, vegetation and air for NPP Cernavoda , Romania . Cernavoda Unit 1 power plant, using CANDU technology, having 706.5 MW power, is successfully in operation since 1996. Cernavoda Unit 2 which is currently under construction will be operational in 2007. Thermal discharge from nuclear reactor cooling is dissipated as waste heat in Danube-Black -Sea Canal and Danube river. Water temperature distributions captured in thermal IR imagery are correlated with meteorological parameters. Additional information regarding flooding events and earthquake risks is considered . During the winter, the thermal plume is localized to an area within a few km of the power plant, and the temperature difference between the plume and non-plume areas is about 1.5 oC. During the summer and fall, there is a larger thermal plume extending 5-6 km far along Danube Black Sea Canal, and the temperature change is about 1.0 oC. Variation of surface water temperature in the thermal plume is analyzed. The strong seasonal difference in the thermal plume is related to vertical mixing of the water column in winter and to stratification in summer. Hydrodynamic simulation leads to better understanding of the mechanisms by which waste heat from NPP Cernavoda is dissipated in the environment.
The aim of this project is the measurement of urban pollution in the Magurele platform (near Bucharest city where the pollutant sources are known) using LIDAR system operating at 532 and 1064 nm wavelengths. The application is based on the remote detection of aerosols in the atmosphere using a Smoke Analyzer by sending a short light pulse and receiving the radiation scattered in backward direction that provides backscattering signal as a function of distance.
The observable backscattered signal is generated by air density fluctuations (Rayleigh scattering) and by small aerosol particles always present in the atmosphere. The presence of aerosol particles gives rise to an increase of the backscattered signal and thus the aerosol flow can be detected on the background surrounding clean atmosphere.
In these applications, it is important the response time to be as shorter as possible, and the sensitivity to be very high, in correlation with an eventual alert when the pollutants exceeds a risk threshold. Therefore processing the lidar data constitutes an important factor in obtaining air quality information.
This papers presents first results obtained in Romania by direct lidar measurements in the area of Bucharest and the original software developed by the Environmental group in INOE for lidar data processing and PBL height identification.