We discuss the joint development by Penn State University (PSU) and Teledyne Imaging Systems (TIS) of hybrid CMOS detectors for X-ray astronomy, and specifically the development over the past 10 years of a new event-driven X-ray detector for future astronomy missions. This novel X-ray detector is designed to perform onchip event recognition and to read out only pixels containing X-ray events. With the exception of analog power supply voltages, the detector is digital in/digital out, reducing off-chip electronics to a minimum. It operates at frame rates of over 1000 frames per second, providing excellent performance for bright X-ray sources and/or high-throughput optics. The pixel size is 40 × 40 microns, and we are fabricating devices with 550 × 550 pixels.
A 2K x 2K 10 µm cutoff HgCdTe array for background-limited space astronomy has been developed by Teledyne Imaging Sensors to specifications set by JPL, and demonstrated by University of Rochester at a focal plane temperature of 40K for the proposed JPL Near-Earth Object Camera (NEOCam) survey mission under the NASA Planetary Defense Coordination Office. We describe the detector performance for the first large format monolithic HgCdTe detector array tested, including the dark current, well depth, dark current vs. temperature, quantum efficiency, latent image performance, and read noise.
The CHROMA (Configurable Hyperspectral Readout for Multiple Applications) is an advanced Focal Plane Array (FPA) designed for visible-infrared imaging spectroscopy. Using Teledyne’s latest substrateremoved HgCdTe detector, the CHROMA FPA has very low dark current, low readout noise and high, stable quantum efficiency from the deep blue (390nm) to the cutoff wavelength. CHROMA has a pixel pitch of 30 microns and is available in array formats ranging from 320×480 to 1600×480 pixels. Users generally disperse spectra over the 480 pixel-length columns and image spatially over the n×160 pixellength rows, where n=2, 4, 8, 10. The CHROMA Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC) has Correlated Double Sampling (CDS) in pixel and generates its own internal bias signals and clocks. This paper presents the measured performance of the CHROMA FPA with 2.5 micron cutoff wavelength including the characterization of noise versus pixel gain, power dissipation and quantum efficiency.
A High Resolution Near-Infrared (NIR) Camera has been developed and tested. This NIR camera uses a HgCdTe detector array which allows for imaging at high operating temperatures. The camera's format is 640x512 pixels with an 18 μm pitch. We have obtained high broadband spectral response from 0.9 to 2.0 micron with near 100% optical fill factor. The camera is designed as a turnkey system that uses the industry standard Camera Link digital interface. The electronics are located remotely from the sensor head allowing it to be adapted to existing optical systems. This compact camera has been targeted for military, scientific and telecommunication applications. This paper will detail the measured camera performance.
Santa Barbara Infrared's (SBIR) MIRAGE (Multispectral InfraRed Animation Generation Equipment) is a state-of-the- art dynamic infrared scene projector system. Imagery from the first MIRAGE system was presented to the scene simulation community during the SPIE AeroSense 99 Symposium. Since that time, SBIR has delivered ten MIRAGE systems. This paper will provide a brief overview of the MIRAGE system and discuss developments in the emitter materials science effort. Overview data will be shown demonstrating the successful development of a high temperature, high stability emitter structure.
With the increased demand for IR sensor and surveillance systems, there is a growing need for technologies to support their operational readiness. Measurement of sensor characteristics such as sensitivity, MRTD, and dynamic range should be standard in all mission critical systems. The Real-Time Infrared Test Set (RTIR) is a portable system designed to provide in-the-field calibration and testing of IR imaging systems and seekers. RTIR uses the high volume manufacturing processes of the Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) and the Micro Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) technology to produce a Thermal Pixel Array (TPA). State-of-the-art CMOS processes define all the necessary on-chip digital and analog electronics. When properly driven, this array generates variable temperature,synthetic IR scenes. A nonuniformity measurement of several TPAs is presented.