Here, we present our development of several experimental methods, which, when applied together, can provide a thorough characterization of the nonlinear refraction and absorption properties of materials. We focus mainly on time-resolved methods for studying both transient absorption and refraction that reveal molecular dynamics including excited-state absorption, singlet-triplet transfer, instantaneous electronic nonlinear refraction, and molecular reorientation. In particular, we will describe our recent studies of new materials including organometallic compounds and organic solvents such as Tetrachloroethylene (C2Cl4).
The chemical and photophysical properties of metal dithiolene compounds have been studied since the 1960’s due to the noninnocent nature of the dithiolene ligands and their rich, reversible electrochemistry. This class of materials have been utilized as biomimetic catalysts, sensitizers for solar energy conversion, laser dyes, and non-linear optical materials thanks in part due to their large photostability. We synthesized a series of nickel (II) and gold (III) dithiolenes with different functional groups in the para positions of the benzene rings to study the structure-property relationships in comparison to those that are commercially available. We will present spectroelectrochemistry data, femtosecond transient difference absorption spectra, and Z-scans in an effort to quantify the ground and excited-state photophysical properties of these compounds.
Organometallic iridium(III) complexes have seen widespread use over the past two decades, particularly as phosphorescent dopants in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) due to their large spin-orbit coupling and metal-toligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited states. Interest in the non-linear optical (NLO) applications of these materials has increased recently with reports of both two-photon absorption (2PA) and reverse saturable absorption (RSA). A family of materials of the form [IrIII(NO2piq)2(acac)] were synthesized and characterized, where acac is acetylacetonate and NO2piq is a nitrophenylisoquinoline ligand. In order to assess structure-property relationships for the photophysics of these complexes, the placement of the nitro group was altered on the phenyl ring. Systematic control over the maxima of the absorption and photoluminescence bands attributed to the MLCT excited states was achieved through the ligand variation. The photophysical properties of this family of materials are discussed in detail and include their linear absorption spectra, photoluminescence measurements at 298 and 77K, excited state lifetimes, and CIE color chromaticity coordinates.
The photophysical properties of cyclometallated iridium compounds are beneficial for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications, such as the design of reverse saturable absorption (RSA) materials. We report on the NLO characterization of a family of compounds of the form [Ir(pbt)2(LX)], where pbt is 2-phenylbenzothiazole and LX is a beta-diketonate ligand. In particular, we investigate the effects of trifluoromethylation on compound solubility and photophysics compared to the parent acetylacetonate (acac) version. The NLO properties, such as the singlet and triplet excited-state cross sections, of these compounds were measured using the Z-scan technique. The excited-state lifetimes were determined from visible transient absorption spectroscopy.
Photochromic cross-link polymers were developed using patented ultraviolet (UV) photoinitiator and commercial photochromic dyes. The photochromic dyes have been characterized by measuring absorbance before and after UV activation using UV-visible (Vis) spectrometry with varying activation intensities and wavelengths. Photochromic cross-link polymers were characterized by a dynamic xenon and UV light activation and fading system. The curing processes on cloth were established and tested to obtain effective photochromic responses. Both PulseForge photonic curing and PulseForge plus heat surface curing processes had much better photochromic responses (18% to 19%, 16% to 25%, respectively) than the xenon lamp treatment (8%). The newly developed photochromic cross-link polymer showed remarkable coloration contrasts and fast and comparable coloration and fading rates. Those intelligent, controlled color changing and sensing capabilities will be used on flexible and “drapeable” surfaces, which will incorporate ultra-low power sensors, sensor indicators, and identifiers.
The electronic transport properties of 1, 3, 5-tri(1-phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl (TPBI) electron transporting layers (ETLs) have been investigated as a function of cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) doping for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The current density-voltage and light emission characteristics were measured as a function of the Cs2CO3-doped ETL thickness. Cs2CO3-doped TPBI decreased OLED operating voltage by 26% and increased device luminance by 17% in a wide concentration range (3.5% to 10.5%) compared to undoped devices. The effects of 7% Cs2CO3-doped ETL thickness indicated that the operating voltage continuously decreased to 37% when the ETL thickness increased to 600 Å and luminance output continued to increase to 21% at ETL thickness 525 Å. The blue OLED can be optimized by adjusting the thicknesses of Cs2CO3-doped TPBI ETL to balance the electron and hole injection.
Organic electronic devices generally have a layered structure with organic materials sandwiched between an anode and a cathode, such organic electronic devices of organic light-emitting diode (OLED), organic photovoltaic (OPV), organic thin-film transistor (OTFT). There are many advantages of these organic electronic devices as compared to silicon-based devices. However, one of key challenge for an organic electronic device is to minimize the charge injection barrier from electrodes to organic materials and improve the charge transport mobility. In order to overcome these circumstances, there are many approaches including, designing organic materials with minimum energy barriers and improving charge transport mobility. Ideally organic materials or complex with Ohmic contact will be the most desired.
In past couple of decades, organic EL materials with excellent characteristics have been searched and devices
operational stability and efficiency has been significantly improved. However, as an emerging technology for the
multibillion-dollar flat-panel-display industry, more typically with continue improvement of liquid crystal displays
(LCDs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) display technology face many challenges. In particular, organic
materials for stable and efficient blue EL emission are one of an important subject of these challenges. In this paper, we
will review our efforts in developing the organic materials for blue emission of organic electroluminescent devices after
reviewing the history of blue EL materials development in past couple decades. Our efforts in developing the organic
materials for blue emission of organic electroluminescent devices will include the following:
1. Fused aromatics fluorescent blue EL materials
2. Mixed cyano-isocyanide cyclometalated iridium complex phosphorescent blue EL materials
3. Exploration of the effects of blue emission stability and efficiency.
This paper describes the development of a 3.5 inch diagonal Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode Display on flexible metal foils. The active matrix array had the VGA format and was fabricated using the polysilicon TFT technology. The advantages that the metal foil substrates offer for flexible display applications will first be discussed, followed by a discussion on the multilayer coatings that were investigated in order to achieve a high quality insulating layer on the metal foil substrate prior to TFT fabrication. Then the polysilicon TFT device performance will be presented as a function of the polysilicon crystallization method. Both laser crystallized polysilicon and solid phased crystallized polysilicon films were investigated for the TFT device fabrication. Due to the opaque nature of the metal foil substrates the display had a top emission structure. Both small molecule and polymer based organic material were investigated for the display emissive part. The former were evaporated while the latter were applied by spin-cast. Various transparent multi-layer metal films were investigated as the top cathode. The approach used to package the finished AMOLED display in order to protect the organic layers from environmental degradation will be described. The display had integrated polysilicon TFT scan drivers consisting of shift registers and buffers but external data drivers. The driving approach of the display will be discussed in detail. The performance of the finished display will be discussed as a function of the various materials and fabrication processes that were investigated.