Electroabsorption from GeSi on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) is expected to have promising
potential for optical modulation due to its low power consumption, small footprint, and more
importantly, wide spectral bandwidth for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) applications.
Germanium, as a bulk crystal, has a sharp absorption edge with a strong coefficient at the direct
band gap close to the C-band wavelength. Unfortunately, when integrated onto Silicon, or when
alloyed with dilute Si for blueshifting to the C-band operation, this strong Franz-Keldysh (FK)
effect in bulk Ge is expected to degrade. Here, we report experimental results for GeSi epi when
grown under a variety of conditions such as different Si alloy content, under selective versus non
selective growth modes for both Silicon and SOI substrates. We compare the measured FK effect
to the bulk Ge material.
Reduced pressure CVD growth of GeSi heteroepitaxy with various Si content was studied
by different characterization tools: X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM),
secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), Hall measurement and optical transmission/absorption
to analyze performance for 1550 nm operation. State-of-the-art GeSi epi with low defect density
and low root-mean-square (RMS) roughness were fabricated into pin diodes and tested in a
surface-normal geometry. They exhibit low dark current density of 5 mA/cm2 at 1V reverse bias
with breakdown voltages of 45 Volts. Strong electroabsorption was observed in our GeSi alloy
with 0.6% Si content having maximum absorption contrast of Δα/α ~5 at 1580 nm at 75 kV/cm.
We present a hybrid integration technology platform for the compact integration of best-in-breed VLSI and photonic
circuits. This hybridization solution requires fabrication of ultralow parasitic chip-to-chip interconnects on the candidate
chips and assembly of these by a highly accurate flip-chip bonding process. The former is achieved by microsolder bump
interconnects that can be fabricated by wafer-scale processes, and are shown to have average resistance <1 ohm/bump
and capacitance <25fF/bump. This suite of technologies was successfully used to hybrid integrate high speed VLSI chips
built on the 90nm bulk CMOS technology node with silicon photonic modulators and detectors built on a 130nm
CMOS-photonic platform and an SOI-photonic platform; these particular hybrids yielded Tx and Rx components with
energies as low as 320fJ/bit and 690fJ/bit, respectively. We also report on challenges and ongoing efforts to fabricate
microsolder bump interconnects on next-generation 40nm VLSI CMOS chips.
Ring waveguide resonating structures with high quality factors are the key components in the silicon photonics portfolio
boosting up its functionality and circuit performance. Due to a number of manufacturing reasons their peak wavelengths
are often prone to deviate from designed values. In order to keep the ring resonator operating as specified, its peak
wavelength then needs to be corrected in a reliable and power efficient way. We demonstrate the performance of the
thermally tunable mux/demux filter ring structures fabricated in the commercial 130 nm SOI CMOS line.
Cationic-induced two-photon photopolymerization is demonstrated at 710 nm, using an isopropylthioxanthone/diarylidonium salt initiating system for the cationic polymerization of an epoxide. The polymerization threshold J2th is found to be approximately 1 GW/cm2, with a dynamic range of > 100, i.e. the material can be fully polymerized at intensities > 100 times the threshold level without damage. The polymerization rate R is found to be proportional to the m equals 1.7 power of the intensity, or R equals [C (J-J2th)]m equals [C (J-J2th)]1.7, which implies a significantly stronger localization of the photochemical response than that of free radical photoinitiators. R and J2th significantly improve when the concentration z of the initiator (onium salt) increases.
It is demonstrated that threshold reduction of two-photon polymerization is achievable by means traditionally employed for sensitivity enhancement for single photon photoinitiation, such as heavy atom enhancement or intersystem crossing, electron donor agent, concentration increase of initiator. It is shown that measured threshold is in reverse proportion to square root of initiator concentration, whereas observed length of induction period exhibits reverse proportionality to the square of light intensity. Overall, experimentally observed threshold values of two-photon induced photopolymerization are effected by all intermediate stages of energy transformation in the photochemical sequences leading to photoinitiation, in particular inter-system crossing of excited initiating molecules as well as by monomer reactivity.
Two-photon 3D optical data storage techniques can achieve hundreds of GB data capacity per disk by storing data in multi-layer volumetric media. This approach can also provide fast data transfer rates by using parallel access techniques. It is a promising solution for the high data capacity demands in imaging and video applications, and the high-speed data access requirements in large-scale high- speed data processing. Development of this technology integrates and leverages developments in parallel sensors, spatial light modulators, novel optics, parallel signal processing, and micro-optic packaging.
Three-dimensional parallel readout of 2-photon multilayer optical disks can simultaneously offer high capacities (greater than 100 GB/disk) and high data transfer rates (greater than 1 Gb/s). The robust system tolerances should enable cost effective storage systems with capacities and transfer rates that are scaleable to match various application requirements.
The generation and application of information is rapidly evolving from text and graphics based to multimedia based, and it will shortly continue to evolve to virtual reality. The evolution between these stages introduces dramatic increases in the amount of data associated with the applications. For example, where text-based meeting notes have given way to emailed copies of vugraphs, future meeting documentation may require storing and communicating an entire collaborative virtual reality session. Even in the near term, the need to store, search for, and edit large numbers of images and digital video clips will drive data storage requirements forward in home, office, and network arenas, as shown in Fre 1 .
We report results of an improved hybrid optical transmitter suitable for use in microwave communication systems. Based on a double up-conversion technique, a 1.3 micrometers wavelength semiconductor diode laser is actively mode-locked, and its output is externally modulated by a lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder amplitude modulator to generate a transmitter output from 19 GHz to 21 GHz. Following a brief review of recent table top system measurements and motivation, we show a second generation engineering scheme for packaging the mode-locked source components. The initial performance results of this source are -34.2 dBm(e) mode-locked output power at 13.1 GHz, with an input rf power of 14.5 dBm(e); RIN is measured at -106.5 dBc(e)/Hz.
We demonstrate a 1.3 micron wavelength optical transmitter system with a 20 GHz RF center frequency and 2 GHz bandwidth. We accomplish this by actively modelocking a semiconductor diode laser at 14 GHz; the modelocked signal is then externally modulated between 5 GHz and 7 GHz, using a lithium niobate based Mach-Zehnder modulator. We show a hybrid prototype package for the modelocked laser source.
The measurement of the relative intensity noise (RIN) of a ridge waveguide laser and a distributed feedback laser under CW, external cavity, direct modulation, and modelocking conditions is presented. The purpose is to determine the relative noise performance of modelocked laser diodes. The results indicate that the RIN of modelocked lasers are comparable to CW lasers but lower than both external cavity lasers (optimized for modelocking but without the applied RF) and directly modulated lasers; the difference can be as much as 5 optical dB. The microwave carriers produced optically by the direct modulation and modelocking of laser diodes are also compared. The comparison determines that modelocked lasers produce less noisy and more RF power efficient microwave carriers. However, no difference in microwave linewidth is detected within the limit of the resolution bandwidth of the detection system.