This work shows the development of a fiber optic taper machine by applying a controlled melting temperature, which is induced by a 30W CO2 laser. The laser is made to influence the fiber, heating it and making it malleable. Then the tension axis of the device moves, having three independent axes X, Y and Z on the laser system, it is possible to mark the fiber in order of generate gratings. The device was designed entirely with low-cost materials, which are made for process optimization, such as resources. The software implemented is designed in Arduino for an IOT card that operates with HTML interface, is controlled from a website with which different variables can be handled for the operation of the taper machine, such as distance, speed and time. The device is controlled by means of Wi-Fi, through a website generating accessibility to the free operation of the engines, which can be executed over the same network. The machine has an aluminum base on which are two endless screws, connected each to a step-by-step motor that when turning in opposite directions move each one, a Fiber Holding Blocks on which the fiber is held to be stretched. The electronic circuit is located in a box attached to the motor system.
A low-cost biosensor for glucose analysis was designed, fabricated and characterized. It was fabricated by using a DLPdirect light processing, 3D printed technique. The operation principle for the electro-optic device is based on the total internal reflection. The photosensitive resin is considered that is doped with nanoparticles such as quantum dots and carbon nanotubes as a waveguide. By using DLP 3D printing technique the device was fabricated. The operation principle was based on the optical phase shift. The entire structure of the device features a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) that was numerically analyzed in a commercial software featuring finite element. The biosensor works in the transmission scheme. Mach-Zehnder interferometer is composed of a waveguide that encompasses the resin doped with nanodots that linked both input and output signals. In contrast, one arm is kept isolated and the other arm exposed to the medium in order to obtain the phase change at the MZI output. A laser-diode of 980 nm was considered as the source. The optical array features a single-mode optic fiber and a bidirectional coupler. While tested, several glucose concentrations (from 0% to 3%) were provided in order to determine the relationship between the glucose concentration and the output signal in order to increase the sensitivity. The future possibility of the aforementioned structure describes the use of several materials for biological-related applications are also discussed.
The technology of cell 3D scaffolds laser fabrication is developed. 3D scaffolds are designed to repair osteochondral defects, which are poorly restored during the organism’s life. The technology involves the use of an installation, the laser beam of which moves along a liquid nanomaterial and evaporates it layer by layer. Liquid nanomaterial consists of the water-protein (collagen, albumin) suspension with carbon nanoparticles (single-walled carbon nanotubes). During laser irradiation, the temperature in the region of nanotubes defects increases and nanotubes are combined into the scaffold. The main component of installation is a continuous laser operating at wavelengh of 810 nm. The laser beam moves along 3 coordinates, which makes it possible to obtain samples of the required geometric shape. The internal and surface structure of the samples at the micro- and nanoscale levels were studied using the X-ray microtomography and scanning electron microscopy. In vitro studies of cell growth during 48 and 72 hours demonstrated the ability of cell 3D scaffolds to support the proliferation of osteoblasts and chondroblasts. Using fluorescence and atomic force microscopy, it was found that the growth and development of cells on a sample with a larger concentration of nanotubes occurred faster compared to samples with a smaller concentration of nanotubes.
It is quite common that patients with ligamentous ruptures, tendonitis, tenosynovitis or sprains are foreseen the use of ad hoc splints for a swift recovery. In this paper, we propose a rehabilitation split that is focused on upper-limb injuries. By considering that upper-limb patient shows a set of different characteristics, our proposal personalizes and prints the splint custom made though a digital model that is generated by a 3D commercial scanner. To fabricate the 3D scanned model the Stereolithography material (SLA) is considered due to the properties that this material offers. In order to complement the recovery process, an electronic system is implemented within the splint design. This system generates a set of pulses for a fix period of time that focuses mainly on a certain group of muscles to allow a fast recovery process known as Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Principle (TENS).
In this paper, a cubic-like structure is proposed to scan and print tools used as medical equipment at low cost for developing countries. The structure features a 3-axis frame plane that uses high-precision step motors. An actuator drives the “x and y” axis through serrated bands with 2 mm pitch. Those give an accuracy of 2.5 microns tops. The z-axe is driven by and inductive sensor that allows us to keep the focus to the printing bed as well as to search for non-smooth areas to correct it and deliver an homogeneous impression. The 3D scanner as well as the entire gears are placed underneath in order to save space. As extrude tip, we are using a 445 nm UV laser with 2000 mW of power. The laser system is able to perform several functions such as crystallizing, engraving or cut though a set of mirror arrays. Crystallization occurs when the laser is guided towards the base. This process allows us to direct it towards the polymer injector and as a result, it crystalizes on the spot. Another feature that this system is the engraving process that occurs while the base moves. The movement allows the beam to pass freely towards the base and perform the engraving process.