The Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer Moon (UCIS-Moon) instrument is an imaging spectrometer designed for integration with a lander or rover for lunar surface science missions. Operating over a 600-3600 nm spectral range with 10 nm sampling and 1.15 mrad IFOV, UCIS-Moon is capable of detecting spectral absorptions from common lunar minerals, OH species, molecular H2O, water ice, organics, and placing mineral identifications within an established geologic context at the cm to m scale. We present an instrument design capable of surviving the harsh lunar environment in the daytime with temperatures as high as 370 K, while providing high-quality spectral data.
The Earth Surface Mineral Dust Source Investigation (EMIT) instrument is a high fidelity imaging spectrometer developed to characterize surface mineralogy of the Earth's dust source regions over the spectral range of 380- 2500 nm and spectral sampling of 7.4 nm. EMIT will close the current knowledge gap in dust source mineral composition by collecting over 1 billion high signal-to-noise ratio spectra in this region of our planet. These new measurements will be used in conjunction with state-of-the-art Earth System Models to understand and reduce the uncertainty in the radiative forcing effect of mineral dust aerosols. EMIT will be deployed on the International Space Station that has an orbit that is well suited for measuring the arid land regions of the Earth. The optical design utilizes a Dyson spectrometer to reduce volume and mass for a fast (F/1.8) and wide swath (1240 samples) optical system. An overview of the EMIT optical design, development, and current status are discussed.
We discuss detailed tolerancing methods developed for imaging spectrometers at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology using the Earth Surface Mineral Dust Source Investigation (EMIT) imaging spectrometer as an illustrative example. We tolerance five metrics simultaneously: along-track response function, crosstrack response function, spectral response function, spectral centroid uniformity, and spatial centroid uniformity. A method to calculate tolerancing sensitivities for each metric directly, a method to statistically combine Monte Carlo files from multiple tolerancing runs, and example summary error budgets that communicate the key and driving tolerances for each metric are discussed. These methods facilitate rapid and semi-automated assessment of the predicted performance of imaging spectrometer systems from design through to assembly and launch life cycle, using metrics that are directly relevant to the extraction of accurate spectroscopic data from these instruments.
The Snow and Water Imaging Spectrometer (SWIS) is a science-grade imaging spectrometer designed for CubeSat integration, spanning a 350- to 1700-nm spectral range with 5.7-nm sampling, a 10-degree field-of-view, and 0.3-mrad spatial resolution. The system operates at F / 1.8, providing the high throughput for low-reflectivity (<1 % ) water surfaces, while avoiding saturation over bright snow or clouds. The SWIS design utilizes heritage from previously demonstrated instruments on airborne platforms while advancing the state of the art in compact sensors of this kind in terms of size and spectral coverage. Compared with airborne campaigns, the CubeSat platform allows for more frequent and regular sampling, while maintaining intermediate to high resolution relative to heritage global sensors. Through frequent repeat observations from space at a moderate spatial resolution, SWIS can address key science questions concerning aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem changes, cryosphere warming and melt behavior, cloud and atmospheric science, and potential impacts of climate change and human activities on the environment.
The Snow and Water Imaging Spectrometer (SWIS) is a fast, high-uniformity, low-polarization sensitivity imaging spectrometer and telescope system designed for integration on a 6U CubeSat platform. Operating in the 350-1700 nm spectral region with 5.7 nm sampling, SWIS is capable of simultaneously addressing the demanding needs of coastal ocean science and snow and ice monitoring. New key technologies that facilitate the development of this instrument include a linear variable anti-reflection (LVAR) detector coating for stray light management, and a single drive on-board calibration mechanism utilizing a transmissive diffuser for solar calibration. We provide an overview of the SWIS instrument design and potential science applications and describe the instrument assembly and alignment, supported by laboratory measurements.
The airborne Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM) instrument is based on a fast (F/1.8) Dyson spectrometer operating at 350-1050 nm and a two-mirror telescope combined with a Teledyne HyViSI 6604A detector array. Raw PRISM data contain electronic and optical artifacts that must be removed prior to radiometric calibration. We provide an overview of the process transforming raw digital numbers to calibrated radiance values. Electronic panel artifacts are first corrected using empirical relationships developed from laboratory data. The instrument spectral response functions (SRF) are reconstructed using a measurement-based optimization technique. Removal of SRF effects from the data improves retrieval of true spectra, particularly in the typically low-signal near-ultraviolet and near-infrared regions. As a final step, radiometric calibration is performed using corrected measurements of an object of known radiance. Implementation of the complete calibration procedure maximizes data quality in preparation for subsequent processing steps, such as atmospheric removal and spectral signature classification.