The InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) is one of three first light science instruments for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). It will provide dedicated function of imaging and integral field spectroscopic observations in parallel with the assistance of a Narrow Field InfraRed Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS). The IRIS imager delivers celestial light to a dual-channel Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) through a pair of pick-off mirrors in the central field. The IFS creates multi-functional ability to explore the universe in IR (0.84 – 2.4um) with moderate spectral resolution of R=4,000/8,000 and four spaxel scales of 4, 9, 25, 50 milli-arc-seconds (mas). An image slicer serves one of the two spectral channels as its Integral Field Unit (IFU) in two coarse spaxel scales of 25 and 50mas over the continuous science fields of 2.2x1.125 arc-seconds (arcsec) and 4.4x2.25 arcsec respectively. It splits the field to 88 unit systems, and then re-images at two parallel slits in order to take full advantage of the detector (4Kx4K @ 15um). This paper describes a novel all-reflective design of image slicer, which uses a new ‘brick stage’ layout to stagger the adjacent mirrors and deliver image quality close to diffraction limit. The quasi-telecentric optical design gives more friendly interfaces with pre-optics and spectrograph than the conceptual design. Here, more technical issues are discussed to guide the further study on optical performance and fabrication feasibility.
Massively multiplexed spectroscopic stellar surveys such as MSE present enormous challenges in the spectrograph design. The combination of high multiplex, large telescope aperture, high resolution (R~40,000) and natural seeing implies that multiple spectrographs with large beam sizes, large grating angles, and fast camera speeds are required, with high cost and risk. An attractive option to reduce the beam size is to use Bragg-type gratings at much higher angles than hitherto considered. As well as reducing the spectrograph size and cost, this also allows the possibility of very high efficiency due to a close match of s and p-polarization Bragg efficiency peaks. The grating itself could be a VPH grating, but Surface Relief (SR) gratings offer an increasingly attractive alternative, with higher maximum line density and better bandwidth. In either case, the grating needs to be immersed within large prisms to get the light to and from the grating at the required angles. We present grating designs and nominal spectrograph designs showing the efficiency gains and size reductions such gratings might allow for the MSE high resolution spectrograph.
Infrared Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) is the first light instrument for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) that consists of a near-infrared (0.84 to 2.4 micron) imager and integral field spectrograph (IFS) which operates at the diffraction-limit utilizing the Narrow-Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS). The imager will have a 34 arcsec x 34 arcsec field of view with 4 milliarcsecond (mas) pixels. The IFS consists of a lenslet array and slicer, enabling four plate scales from 4 mas to 50 mas, multiple gratings and filters, which in turn will operate hundreds of individual modes. IRIS, operating in concert with NFIRAOS will pose many challenges for the data reduction system (DRS). Here we present the updated design of the real-time and post-processing DRS. The DRS will support two modes of operation of IRIS: (1) writing the raw readouts sent from the detectors and performing the sampling on all of the readouts for a given exposure to create a raw science frame; and (2) reduction of data from the imager, lenslet array and slicer IFS. IRIS is planning to save the raw readouts for a given exposure to enable sophisticated processing capabilities to the end users, such as the ability to remove individual poor seeing readouts to improve signal-to-noise, or from advanced knowledge of the point spread function (PSF). The readout processor (ROP) is a key part of the IRIS DRS design for writing and sampling of the raw readouts into a raw science frame, which will be passed to the TMT data archive. We discuss the use of sub-arrays on the imager detectors for saturation/persistence mitigation, on-detector guide windows, and fast readout science cases (< 1 second).
The Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer (MSE) project will transform the CFHT 3.6m optical telescope to a 10m class dedicated multi-object spectroscopic facility, with an ability to measure thousands of objects with three spectral resolution modes respectively low resolution of R≈3,000, moderate resolution of R≈6,000 and high resolution of R≈ 40,000. Two identical multi-object high resolution spectrographs are expected to simultaneously produce 1084 spectra with high resolution of 40,000 at Blue (401-416nm) and Green (472-489nm) channels, and 20,000 at Red (626-674nm) channel. At the Conceptual Design Phase (CoDP), different optical schemes were proposed to meet the challenging requirements, especially a unique design with a novel transmission image slicer array, and another conventional design with oversize Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings. It became clear during the CoDP that both designs presented problems of complexity or feasibility of manufacture, especially high line density disperser (general name for all kinds of grating, grism, prism). At the present, a new design scheme is proposed for investigating the optimal way to reduce technical risk and get more reliable estimation of cost and timescale. It contains new dispersers, F/2 fast collimator and so on. Therein, the disperser takes advantage of a special grism and a prism to reduce line density on grating surface, keep wide opening angle of optical path, and get the similar spectrum layout in all three spectral channels. For the fast collimator, it carefully compares on-axis and off-axis designs in throughput, interface to fiber assembly and technical risks. The current progress is more competitive and credible than the previous design, but it also indicates more challenging work will be done to improve its accessibility in engineering.
With the successful completion of our preliminary design phase, we will present an update on all design aspects of the IRIS near-infrared integral field spectrograph and wide-field imager for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). IRIS works with the Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS) to make observations at the diffraction limit of TMT at wavelengths between 0.84 and 2.4 microns. The imager has been expanded to a 34 arcsec field of view and the spectrograph has a wide range of filter and spectral format combinations with a contiguous field of view up to 112x128 spatial elements. Among the many challenges the instrument faces, and has tried to address in its design, are atmospheric dispersion up to 100 times the sampling scale, unprecedented saturation issues in crowded fields, and the need for integrated on-instrument wavefront sensors. But the scientific payoff is enormous and IRIS on TMT will open entirely new opportunities in all areas of astrophysical science.
The InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) is the first-light client instrument for the Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS) on the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). IRIS includes three natural guide star (NGS) On-Instrument Wavefront Sensors (OIWFS) to measure tip/tilt and focus errors in the instrument focal plane. NFIRAOS also has an internal natural guide star wavefront sensor, and IRIS and NFIRAOS must precisely coordinate the motions of their wavefront sensor positioners to track the locations of NGSs while the telescope is dithering (offsetting the telescope to cover more area), to avoid a costly re-acquisition time penalty. First, we present an overview of the sequencing strategy for all of the involved subsystems. We then predict the motion of the telescope during dithers based on finite-element models provided by TMT, and finally analyze latency and jitter issues affecting the propagation of position demands from the telescope control system to individual motor controllers.
The Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer (MSE) project will transform the CFHT 3.6m optical telescope into a 10m class dedicated multi-object spectroscopic facility, with an ability to simultaneously measure thousands of objects with a spectral resolution range spanning 2,000 to 40,000. MSE will develop two spectrographic facilities to meet the science requirements. These are respectively, the Low/Medium Resolution spectrographs (LMRS) and High Resolution spectrographs (HRS). Multi-object high resolution spectrographs with total of 1,156 fibers is a big challenge, one that has never been attempted for a 10m class telescope. To date, most spectral survey facilities work in single order low/medium resolution mode, and only a few Wide Field Spectrographs (WFS) provide a cross-dispersion high resolution mode with a limited number of orders. Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics and Technology (NIAOT) propose a conceptual design with the use of novel image slicer arrays and single order immersed Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) grating for the MSE multi-object high resolution spectrographs. The conceptual scheme contains six identical fiber-link spectrographs, each of which simultaneously covers three restricted bands (λ/30, λ/30, λ/15) in the optical regime, with spectral resolution of 40,000 in Blue/Visible bands (400nm / 490nm) and 20,000 in Red band (650nm). The details of the design is presented in this paper.
IRIS is a near-infrared (0.84 to 2.4 micron) integral field spectrograph and wide-field imager being developed for first light with the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). It mounts to the advanced adaptive optics (AO) system NFIRAOS and has integrated on-instrument wavefront sensors (OIWFS) to achieve diffraction-limited spatial resolution at wavelengths longer than 1 μm. With moderate spectral resolution (R ~ 4000 – 8,000) and large bandpass over a continuous field of view, IRIS will open new opportunities in virtually every area of astrophysical science. It will be able to resolve surface features tens of kilometers across Titan, while also mapping the most distant galaxies at the scale of an individual star forming region. This paper summarizes the entire design and capabilities, and includes the results from the nearly completed preliminary design phase.
The Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer is designed to be the largest non-ELT optical/NIR astronomical telescope, and will be a fully dedicated facility for multi-object spectroscopy over a broad range of spectral resolutions. The MSE design has progressed from feasibility concept into its current baseline design where the system configuration of main systems such as telescope, enclosure, summit facilities and instrument are fully defined. This paper will describe the engineering development of the main systems, and discuss the trade studies to determine the optimal telescope and multiplexing designs and how their findings are incorporated in the current baseline design.
The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) first light instrument IRIS (Infrared Imaging Spectrograph) will complete its preliminary design phase in 2016. The IRIS instrument design includes a near-infrared (0.85 - 2.4 micron) integral field spectrograph (IFS) and imager that are able to conduct simultaneous diffraction-limited observations behind the advanced adaptive optics system NFIRAOS. The IRIS science cases have continued to be developed and new science studies have been investigated to aid in technical performance and design requirements. In this development phase, the IRIS science team has paid particular attention to the selection of filters, gratings, sensitivities of the entire system, and science cases that will benefit from the parallel mode of the IFS and imaging camera. We present new science cases for IRIS using the latest end-to-end data simulator on the following topics: Solar System bodies, the Galactic center, active galactic nuclei (AGN), and distant gravitationally-lensed galaxies. We then briefly discuss the necessity of an advanced data management system and data reduction pipeline.
We present an overview of the design of IRIS, an infrared (0.84 - 2.4 micron) integral field spectrograph and imaging
camera for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). With extremely low wavefront error (<30 nm) and on-board wavefront
sensors, IRIS will take advantage of the high angular resolution of the narrow field infrared adaptive optics system
(NFIRAOS) to dissect the sky at the diffraction limit of the 30-meter aperture. With a primary spectral resolution of
4000 and spatial sampling starting at 4 milliarcseconds, the instrument will create an unparalleled ability to explore high
redshift galaxies, the Galactic center, star forming regions and virtually any astrophysical object. This paper summarizes
the entire design and basic capabilities. Among the design innovations is the combination of lenslet and slicer integral
field units, new 4Kx4k detectors, extremely precise atmospheric dispersion correction, infrared wavefront sensors, and a
very large vacuum cryogenic system.
High accuracy radial velocity measurement isn’t only one of the most important methods for detecting earth-like
Exoplanets, but also one of the main developing fields of astronomical observation technologies in future. Externally
dispersed interferometry (EDI) generates a kind of particular interference spectrum through combining a fixed-delay
interferometer with a medium-resolution spectrograph. It effectively enhances radial velocity measuring accuracy by
several times. Another further study on multi-delay interferometry was gradually developed after observation success
with only a fixed-delay, and its relative instrumentation makes more impressive performance in near Infrared band.
Multi-delay is capable of giving wider coverage from low to high frequency in Fourier field so that gives a higher
accuracy in radial velocity measurement. To study on this new technology and verify its feasibility at Guo Shoujing
telescope (LAMOST), an experimental instrumentation with single fixed-delay named MESSI has been built and tested
at our lab. Another experimental study on multi-delay spectral interferometry given here is being done as well. Basically,
this multi-delay experimental system is designed in according to the similar instrument named TEDI at Palomar
observatory and the preliminary test result of MESSI. Due to existence of LAMOST spectrograph at lab, a multi-delay
interferometer design actually dominates our work. It’s generally composed of three parts, respectively science optics,
phase-stabilizing optics and delay-calibrating optics. To switch different fixed delays smoothly during observation, the
delay-calibrating optics is possibly useful to get high repeatability during switching motion through polychromatic
interferometry. Although this metrology is based on white light interferometry in theory, it’s different that integrates all
of interference signals independently obtained by different monochromatic light in order to avoid dispersion error caused
by broad band in big optical path difference (OPD).
Exoplanet detection, a highlight in the current astronomy, will be part of puzzle in astronomical and astrophysical future,
which contains dark energy, dark matter, early universe, black hole, galactic evolution and so on. At present, most of the
detected Exoplanets are confirmed through methods of radial velocity and transit. Guo shoujing Telescope well known
as LAMOST is an advanced multi-object spectral survey telescope equipped with 4000 fibers and 16 low resolution fiber
spectrographs. To explore its potential in different astronomical activities, a new radial velocity method named
Externally Dispersed Interferometry (EDI) is applied to serve Exoplanet detection through combining a fixed-delay
interferometer with the existing spectrograph in medium spectral resolution mode (R=5,000-10,000). This new
technology has an impressive feature to enhance radial velocity measuring accuracy of the existing spectrograph through
installing a fixed-delay interferometer in front of spectrograph. This way produces an interference spectrum with higher
sensitivity to Doppler Effect by interference phase and fixed delay. This relative system named Multi-object Exoplanet
Search Spectral Interferometer (MESSI) is composed of a few parts, including a pair of multi-fiber coupling sockets, a
remote control iodine subsystem, a multi-object fixed delay interferometer and the existing spectrograph. It covers from
500 to 550 nm and simultaneously observes up to 21 stars. Even if it’s an experimental instrument at present, it’s still
well demonstrated in paper that how MESSI does explore an effective way to build its own system under the existing
condition of LAMOST and get its expected performance for multi-object Exoplanet detection, especially instrument
stability and its special data reduction. As a result of test at lab, inside temperature of its instrumental chamber is stable
in a range of ±0.5degree Celsius within 12 hours, and the direct instrumental stability without further observation
correction is equivalent to be ±50m/s every 20mins.
Optical interferometry isn’t only widely applied into optical workshop, but also makes great contribution in astronomical observation. A multi-object fixed delay Michelson interferometer commissioned to search extra-solar planet (exoplanet) is introduced here. Fixed delay of 1.9mm, which is good for stellar radial velocity measuring precision, is obtained by two interference arms with different materials. This configuration has different refractive indexes and physical characteristics so that supplies wider field of view and better thermal stability. In addition, compact interference component with three glued prisms and smart structure are the other important features. Because of vibration influence, the combination among the prisms is a direct and effective method. And the reason why make the structure as small as possible is of central obscuration under the workspace of interferometer.
It's a very important point that fully open up power of Gou Shoujing telescope (LAMOST) in exoplanet detection field
by developing a multi-exoplanet survey system. But it's an indisputable truth in the present astronomy that a traditional
type of multi-object high resolution spectrograph is almost impossible to be developed. External Dispersed
Interferometry is an effective way to improve the radial velocity measuring accuracy of medium resolution spectrograph.
With the using of this technique, Multi-object Exoplanet Search Spectral Interferometer (MESSI) is an exploratory
system with medium measuring accuracy based on LAMOST low resolution spectrograph works in medium-resolution
mode (R=5,000 - 10,000). And it's believed that will bring some feasible way in the future development of multi-object
medium/high resolution spectrograph. After prototype experiment in 2010, a complete configuration is under the
development, including a multi-object fixed-delay Michelson interferometer, an iodine cell with multi-fiber optical
coupling system and a multi-terminal switching system in an efficient fiber physical coupling way. By some effective
improvement, the interferometer has smaller cross section and more stable interference component. Moreover, based on
physical and optical fiber coupling technique, it's possible for the iodine cell and the switching system to simultaneously
and identically coupling 25 pairs of fibers. In paper, all of the progress is given in detail.
Fixed Delay Michelson Interferometer (FDMI) also called Wide-Angle Michelson Interferometer (WAMI) is different
from conventional Michelson interferometer. Its fixed delay is not only useful to widen the field of view, but also
improve the accuracy of RV measurement. So it's widely known that works well on upper atmospheric wind study by
measuring the Doppler shift of single emission lines. On the other hand, a new technique called External Dispersed
Interferometry (EDI) can efficiently overcome the fundamental limitation of narrow bandpass of interferometer by
combination between FDMI and post-disperser. The related instruments have been successfully used in the exoplanet
exploration field. In this paper, the FDMI concept and its application in these two fields are reviewed, and a major
astronomical project in China, which is developing a multi-object exoplanet survey system (MESS) based on FDMI, is
Chinese national science project-LAMOST successfully received its official blessing in June, 2009. Its aperture is about
4m, and its focal plane of 1.75m in diameter, corresponding to a 5° field of view, can accommodate as many as 4000
optical fibers, and feed 16 multi-object low-medium resolution spectrometers (LRS). In addition, a new technique called
External Dispersed Interferometry (EDI) is successfully used to enhance the accuracy of radial velocity measurement by
heterodyning an interference spectrum with absorption lines. For further enhancing the survey power of LAMOST, a
major astronomical project, Multi-object Exoplanet Survey System (MESS) based on this advanced technique, is being
developed by Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics and Technology (NIAOT) and National Astronomical
Observatories of China (NAOC), and funded by Joint Fund of Astronomy, which is set up by National Natural Sciences
Foundation of China (NSFC) and Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). This system is composed of a multi-object fixed
delay Michelson interferometer (FDMI) and a multi-object medium resolution spectrometer (R=5000). In this paper, a
prototype design of FDMI is given, including optical system and mechanical structure.