Large-scale fabrication of micro-optical Guided-Mode-Resonance (GMR) components using VLSI techniques is
desirable, due to the planar system integration capabilities it enables, especially with laser resonator technology.
However, GMR performance is dependent on within-wafer as well as wafer-to-wafer lithographic process variability,
and pattern transfer fidelity of the final component in the substrate. The fabrication of lithographs below the g-line
stepper resolution limit is addressed using multiple patterning. We report results from computational simulations,
fabrication and optical reflectance measurements of GMR mirrors and filters (designed to perform around the
wavelength of 1550nm), with correlations to lithographic parameter variability, such as photoresist exposure range and
etch depth. The dependence of the GMR resonance peak wavelength, peak bandwidth are analyzed as a function of
photolithographic fabrication tolerances and process window.
Evolution in nature has produced through adaptation a wide variety of distinctive optical structures in many life forms.
For example, pigment differs greatly from the observed color of most beetles because their exoskeletons contain
multilayer coatings. The green beetle is disguised in a surrounding leaf by having a comparable reflection spectrum as
the leaves. The Manuka and June beetle have a concave structure where light incident at any angle on the concave
structures produce matching reflection spectra.
In this work, semiconductor processing methods were used to duplicate the structure of the beetle exoskeleton. This was
achieved by combining analog lithography with a multilayer deposition process. The artificial exoskeleton, 3D concave
multilayer structure, demonstrates a wide field of view with a unique spectral response. Studying and replicating these
biologically inspired nanostructures may lead to new knowledge for fabrication and design of new and novel nano-photonic
devices, as well as provide valuable insight to how such phenomenon is exploited.