Experiments are presented that investigate the mechanistic cause of multilayer erosion observed from condenser optics exposed to EUV laser-produced plasma (LPP) sources. Using a Xe filament jet source excited with Nd-YAG laser radiation (300 mJ/pulse), measurements were made of material erosion from Au, Mo, Si and C using coated quartz microbalances located 127 mm from the plasma. The observed erosion rates were as follows: Au=99nm/106 shots, Mo= 26nm/106 shots, Si=19nm/106 shots, and C=6nm/106 shots. The relative ratio Au:Mo:Si:C of erosion rates observed experimentally, 16:4:3:1 compares favorably with that predicted from an atomic sputtering model assuming 20 kV Xe ions, 16:6:4:1. The relative agreement indicates that Xe-substrate sputtering is largely responsible for the erosion of Mo/Si multilayers on condenser optics that directly face the plasma. Time-of-flight Faraday cup measurements reveal the emission of high energy Xe ions from the Xe-filament jet plasma. The erosion rate does not depend on the repetition rate of the laser, suggesting a thermal mechanism is not operative. The Xe-filament jet erosion is ~20x that observed from a Xe spray jet. Since the long-lived (millisecond time scale) plasma emanating from these two sources are the same to within ~30%, sputtering from this long-lived plasma can be ruled out as an erosion agent.
A critical issue in the realization of EUV lithography (EUVL) as a production technology is the lifetime of the condenser, the optic in closest proximity to any compact, high-power EUV source. During operation of the Engineering Test Stand (ETS), a full-field, high-power EUVL alpha tool, the silicon/molybdenum multilayer mirrors used as a condenser were eroded by extended exposure to the LPP source. The erosion rate varied considerably, and diagnostic instrumentation on the ETS was not intended to address this issue, so the cause of this erosion was not determined at the time. We present here the results of experiments in which samples of gold, molybdenum, and silicon were exposed to an LPP using a liquid xenon jet as the target. The measured erosion rates suggest a sputtering mechanism. Observations of the plasma environment at the condenser position show the presence of fast ions, which, if they are xenon, have kinetic energies of tens of keV. Such ions would contribute significantly to condenser erosion.
A mathematical model is used to describe the processes that contribute to the deposition of a carbon film on EUV multilayer optics when the optic is exposed to EUV radiation in the presence of residual hydrocarbon gases. The key physical and chemical processes taken into account within the model include the transport of residual hydrocarbons to the irradiated area, molecular diffusion across the optic surface, and the subsequent dissociation or "cracking" of the hydrocarbon by both direct EUV ionization and secondary electron excitation. The dissociated hydrocarbons are reactive and form a carbonaceous film that reduces the reflectivity of the optic and the overall throughput of the EUV lithographic system. The model, which provides estimates of hydrocarbon film growth under various conditions of hydrocarbon partial pressures and EUV power, is validated by predicting the carbon thickness associated with a series of EUV exposures performed in the laboratory. The model is then used to evaluate the effects of hydrocarbon partial pressure, EUV power, hydrocarbon mass, and temperature on the growth of the carbonaceous contaminate layer.
Silicon capped [Mo/Si] multilayer mirrors (MLM’s) can undergo oxidation by the combined effects of radiation (Extreme Ultraviolet [EUV], electron) and water vapor. This parametric study provides silicon-capped MLM oxidation rate data. The goal of this study was to determine the dependence of silicon oxidation on water vapor pressure and radiation flux density over three orders of magnitude. Previous work1 has shown that electron and 95.3 eV EUV exposures produce similar oxidation. The present study verifies that correlation and examines the effects of EUV and electron flux on the oxidation rate of the Si-capping layer. E-beam and EUV exposed areas on silicon-capped MLM samples were analyzed following radiation exposure by Auger depth profiling to determine the thickness of the oxide grown. A ruthenium (Ru) capped MLM was also exposed for 4-hours, however it showed very little oxidation under the most extreme conditions of our test matrix. Also the effect of varying the primary e-beam voltage (0.5-2.0 keV) on Si-capped MLM was examined, which showed that exposures in the 1-2 keV range produce similar results.
Extreme ultraviolet (EUV)-induced oxidation of silicon-capped, [Mo/Si] multilayer mirrors in the presence of background levels of water vapor is recognized as one of the most serious threats to multilayer lifetime since oxidation of the top silicon layer is an irreversible process. The current work directly compares the oxidation on a silicon-capped, [Mo/Si] multilayers caused by EUV photons with the oxidation caused by 1 keV electrons in the presence of the same water vapor environment (2 x 10-6 Torr). Similar, 4 nm, silicon-capped, [Mo/Si] multilayer mirror samples were exposed to photons (95.3 eV) + water vapor at the ALS, LBNL, and also to a 1 keV electron beam + water vapor in separate experimental systems. The results of this work showed that the oxidation produced by ~1 µA of e-beam current was found to be equivalent to that produced by ~1 mW of EUV exposure. These results will help allow the use of 1 keV electrons beams, instead of EUV photons, to perform environmental testing of multilayers in a low-pressure water environment and to more accurately determine projected mirror lifetimes based on the electron beam exposures.
Recent studies have been conducted to investigate the use of atomic hydrogen as an in-situ contamination removal method for EUV optics. In these experiments, a commercial source was used to produce atomic hydrogen by thermal dissociation of molecular hydrogen using a hot filament. Samples for these experiments consisted of silicon wafers coated with sputtered carbon, Mo/Si optics with EUV-induced carbon, and bare Si-capped and Ru-B4C-capped Mo/Si optics. Samples were exposed to an atomic hydrogen source at a distance of 200 - 500 mm downstream and angles between 0-90° with respect to the source. Carbon removal rates and optic oxidation rates were measured using Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiling. In addition, at-wavelength peak reflectance (13.4 nm) was measured using the EUV reflectometer at the Advanced Light Source. Data from these experiments show carbon removal rates up to 20 Å/hr for sputtered carbon and 40 Å/hr for EUV deposited carbon at a distance of 200 mm downstream. The cleaning rate was also observed to be a strong function of distance and angular position. Experiments have also shown that the carbon etch rate can be increased by a factor of 4 by channeling atomic hydrogen through quartz tubes in order to direct the atomic hydrogen to the optic surface. Atomic hydrogen exposures of bare optic samples show a small risk in reflectivity degradation after extended periods. Extended exposures (up to 20 hours) of bare Si-capped Mo/Si optics show a 1.2% loss (absolute) in reflectivity while the Ru-B4C-capped Mo/Si optics show a loss on the order of 0.5%. In order to investigate the source of this reflectivity degradation, optic samples were exposed to atomic deuterium and analyzed using low energy ion scattering direct recoil spectroscopy to determine any reactions of the hydrogen with the multilayer stack. Overall, the results show that the risk of over-etching with atomic hydrogen is much less than previous studies using RF discharge cleaning while providing cleaning rates suitable for EUV lithography operations.
The EUV Engineering Test Stand (ETS) is a full field, alpha class Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) tool that has demonstrated the printing of 70 nm resolution scanned images. The tool employs
Mo/Si multilayer optics that reflect EUV radiation (13.4nm / 92.5eV) with ~67% peak reflectance per optic. For good reflectivity, many (greater than or equal to 40)Mo/Si layers must be present. Consequently, processes such as plasma induced multilayer erosion, which reduces the number of bilayer pairs on plasma facing optics, need to be understood. Since most materials readily absorb EUV photons, it is important to prevent contamination of mirror surfaces with EUV absorbing material. Contamination can occur by EUV photons “cracking” hydrocarbons or other species absorbed on the optical surfaces. The first ETS condenser component, referred to as C1, is coated with Mo/Si multilayers. Data collected from Mo/Si witness plates placed at the C1 position indicate erosion, using the Xe Laser Produced Plasma (LPP) spray jet, of 1 bilayer per ~15 million shots. Preliminary experiments with a filament jet yielded a significantly higher erosion rate. In the spray jet studies, erosion was found to depend sensitively on the composition of the residual background environment. Addition of low levels, ~7x10-7 Torr, of H2O to the vacuum background produced oxidation of the Si cap, and significantly slowed spray jet induced erosion. Operation of the plasma changed the environment in the Illuminator Chamber from oxidizing to carbonizing, thereby changing the nature of the contamination found environment at the C3 optic which does not view the plasma directly (and therefore does not erode). The change in environment is attributed to plasma induced outgassing of fluorocarbons in the Illuminator. Due to the non zero conductance
between the Illuminator and Main Chambers, fluorocarbons were also found in the Main Chamber during Xe LPP operation. RGA data are presented that document the effect. In the presence of such outgassing, Carbon deposition rates were measured for the C3, and P.O. Box optics. For C3, a C deposition rate of 3 angstrom / 10 million shots was found, while for the PO Box, a C deposition rate of 0.02 angstrom / 10 million shots was found from the data. All data was acquired with no attempt to mitigate C deposition with gas phase additives such as O2.
Full-field imaging with a developmental projection optic box (POB 1) was successfully demonstrated in the alpha tool Engineering Test Stand (ETS) last year. Since then, numerous improvements, including laser power for the laser-produced plasma (LPP) source, stages, sensors, and control system have been made. The LPP has been upgraded from the 40 W LPP cluster jet source used for initial demonstration of full-field imaging to a high-power (1500 W) LPP source with a liquid Xe spray jet. Scanned lithography at various laser drive powers of >500 W has been demonstrated with virtually identical lithographic performance.
The performance of Mo/Si multilayer mirrors (MLMs) used to reflect UV (EUV) radiation in an EUV + hydrocarbon (NC) vapor environment can be improved by optimizing the silicon capping layer thickness on the MLM in order to minimize the initial buildup of carbon on MLMs. Carbon buildup is undesirable since it can absorb EUV radiation and reduce MLM reflectivity. A set of Mo/Si MLMs deposited on Si wafers was fabricated such that each MLM had a different Si capping layer thickness ranging form 2 nm to 7 nm. Samples from each MLM wafer were exposed to a combination of EUV light + (HC) vapors at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron in order to determine if the Si capping layer thickness affected the carbon buildup on the MLMs. It was found that the capping layer thickness had a major influence on this 'carbonizing' tendency, with the 3 nm layer thickness providing the best initial resistance to carbonizing and accompanying EUV reflectivity loss in the MLM. The Si capping layer thickness deposited on a typical EUV optic is 4.3 nm. Measurements of the absolute reflectivities performed on the Calibration and Standards beamline at the ALS indicated the EUV reflectivity of the 3 nm-capped MLM was actually slightly higher than that of the normal, 4 nm Si-capped sample. These results show that he use of a 3 nm capping layer represents an improvement over the 4 nm layer since the 3 nm has both a higher absolute reflectivity and better initial resistance to carbon buildup. The results also support the general concept of minimizing the electric field intensity at the MLM surface to minimize photoelectron production and, correspondingly, carbon buildup in a EUV + HC vapor environment.
The EUV Engineering Test Stand (ETS) has demonstrated the printing of 100 nm resolution scanned images. This milestone was achieved with the ETS operating in an initial low-power configuration using a 40 W laser combined with a Xe cluster jet. The third condenser component is referred to as 'C3' illuminator optics was removed after this low-power operation, and extensively characterized for EUV-induced contamination. EUV reflectivity data indicate a decrease in reflectivity from an initial 66 percent to approximately 48- 56 percent, with the more intensely illuminated areas of the C3 having the smaller final reflectivity. Auger electron spectroscopy indicated the observed reflectivity decrease can be largely attributed to carbon contamination, approximately 150-300 Angstrom thick depending on location. No evidence was found for optic oxidation, indicating EtOH successfully prevented EUV/H2O oxidation of the outermost Si layer during exposure to both EUV and out-of- band radiation. Measurements of the reflectivity centroid wavelength shoed a negligible change, suggesting the observed variations were due to surface contaminating and not bulk multilayer radiation damage. The carbon contamination could be removed by RF-O2 cleaning.
The EUV Engineering Test Stand (ETS) has demonstrated the printing of 100-nm-resolution scanned images. This milestone was first achieved while the ETS operated in an initial configuration using a low power laser and a developmental projection system, PO Box 1. The drive laser has ben upgraded to a single chain of the three-chain Nd:YAG laser developed by TRW. The result in exposure time is approximately 4 seconds for static exposures. One hundred nanometer dense features have been printed in step-and-scan operation with the same image quality obtained in static printing. These experiments are the first steps toward achieving operation using all three laser chains for a total drive laser power of 1500 watts. In a second major upgrade the developmental wafer stage platen, used to demonstrate initial full-field imaging, has been replaced with the final low-expansion platen made of Zerodur. Additional improvements in the hardware and control software have demonstrated combined x and jitter from 2 to 4 nm RMS Over most of the wafer stage travel range, while scanning at the design scan speed of 10 mm/s at the wafer. This value, less than half of the originally specified jitter, provides sufficient stability to support printing of 70 nm features as planned, when the upgraded projection system is installed. The third major upgrade will replace PO Box 1 with an improved projection system, PO Box 2, having lower figure error and lower flare. In addition to these upgrades, dose sensors at the reticle and wafer planes and an EUV- sensitive aerial image monitor have been integrated into the ETS. This paper reports on ETS system upgrades and the impact on system performance.
A 'thermophoretic pellicle' has been proposed as an alternative to the traditional organic pellicle as a means of protecting EUV lithographic photomasks from particle contamination. The thermophoretic pellicle protects a mask from particles by exploiting the thermophoretic force, which is exerted on a particle by a surrounding gas in which a temperature gradient exists. Two critical requirements of the thermophoretic pellicle are: 1) the mask is kept warmer than its surroundings (either by heating the mask or by cooling the surroundings) and 2) the surrounding gas pressure is kept sufficiently high to enable thermophoretic protection. Experiments are presented which verify the viabilitiy of thermophoretic protection for EUV masks under model conditions. In these experiments, wafers are exposed to monodisperse polystyrene latex (PSL) spheres under carefully controlled experimental conditions. Robust thermophoretic protection is observed over a wide range of argon gas pressures (50-1600 mTorr or 6.66-213 Pa), particle sizes (65-300 nm), and temperature gradients (2-15 K/cm).
Carbon contamination removal was investigated using remote RF-O2, RF-H2, and atomic hydrogen experiments. Samples consisted of silicon wafers coated with 100 Angstrom sputtered carbon, as well as bare Si-capped Mo/Si optics. Samples were exposed to atomic hydrogen or RF plasma discharges at 100 W, 200 W, and 300 W. Carbon removal rate, optic oxidation rate, at-wavelength (13.4 nm) peak reflectance, and optic surface roughness were characterized. Data show that RF- O2 removes carbon at a rate approximately 6 times faster RF- H2 for a given discharge power. However, both cleaning techniques induce Mo/Si optic degradation through the loss of reflectivity associated with surface oxide growth for RF-O2 and an unknown mechanism with hydrogen cleaning. Atomic hydrogen cleaning shows carbon removal rates sufficient for use as an in-situ cleaning strategy for EUVoptics with less risk of optic degradation from overexposures than RF-discharge cleaning. While hydrogen cleaning (RF and atomic) of EUV optics has proven effective in carbon removal, attempts to dissociate hydrogen in co-exposures with EUV radiation have resulted in no detectable removal of carbon contamination.
The Engineering Test Stand (ETS) is an EUV lithography tool designed to demonstrate full-field EUV imaging and provide data required to accelerate production-tool development. Early lithographic results and progress on continuing functional upgrades are presented and discussed. In the ETS a source of 13.4 nm radiation is provided by a laser plasma source in which a Nd:YAG laser beam is focused onto a xenon- cluster target. A condenser system, comprised of multilayer-coated and grazing incidence mirrors, collects the EUV radiation and directs it onto a reflecting reticle. The resulting EUV illumination at the reticle and pupil has been measured and meets requirements for acquisition of first images. Tool setup experiments have been completed using a developmental projection system with (lambda) /14 wavefront error (WFE), while the assembly and alignment of the final projection system with (lambda) /24 WFE progresses in parallel. These experiments included identification of best focus at the central field point and characterization of imaging performance in static imaging mode. A small amount of astigmatism was observed and corrected in situ, as is routinely done in advanced optical lithographic tools. Pitch and roll corrections were made to achieve focus throughout the arc-shaped field of view. Scan parameters were identified by printing dense features with varying amounts of magnification and skew correction. Through-focus scanned imaging results, showing 100 nm isolated and dense features, will be presented. Phase 2 implementation goals for the ETS will also be discussed.
The Engineering Test Stand (ETS) is a developmental lithography tool designed to demonstrate full-field EUV imaging and provide data for commercial-tool development. In the first phase of integration, currently in progress, the ETS is configured using a developmental projection system, while fabrication of an improved projection system proceeds in parallel. The optics in the second projection system have been fabricated to tighter specifications for improved resolution and reduced flare. The projection system is a 4-mirror, 4x-reduction, ring-field design having a numeral aperture of 0.1, which supports 70 nm resolution at a k1 of 0.52. The illuminator produces 13.4 nm radiation from a laser-produced plasma, directs the radiation onto an arc-shaped field of view, and provides an effective fill factor at the pupil plane of 0.7. The ETS is designed for full-field images in step-and-scan mode using vacuum-compatible, magnetically levitated, scanning stages. This paper describes system performance observed during the first phase of integration, including static resist images of 100 nm isolated and dense features.
The first environmental data from the Engineering Test Stand (ETS) has been collected. Excellent control of high-mass hydrocarbons has been observed. This control is a result of extensive outgas testing of components and materials, vacuum compatible design of the ETS, careful cleaning of parts and pre-baking of cables and sub assemblies where possible, and clean assembly procedures. As a result of the hydrocarbon control, the residual ETS vacuum environment is rich in water vapor. Analysis of witness plate data indicates that the ETS environment does not pose a contamination risk to the optics in the absence of EUV irradiation. However, with EUV exposure, the water rich environment can lead to EUV- induced water oxidation of the Si-terminated Mo/Si optics. Added ethanol can prevent optic oxidation, allowing carbon growth via EUV cracking of low-level residual hydrocarbons to occur. The EUV environmental issues are understood, mitigation approaches have been validated, and EUV optic contamination appears to be manageable.
Carbon deposition and removal experiments on Mo/Si multilayer mirror (MLM) samples were performed using extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light on Beamline 18.104.22.168 of the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Carbon (C) was deposited onto Mo/Si multilayer mirror (MLM) samples when hydrocarbon vapors where intentionally introduced into the MLM test chamber in the presence of EUV at 13.44 nm (92.3eV). The carbon deposits so formed were removed by molecular oxygen + EUV. The MLM reflectivities and photoemission were measured in-situ during these carbon deposition and cleaning procedures. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) sputter-through profiling of the samples was performed after experimental runs to help determine C layer thickness and the near-surface compositional-depth profiles of all samples studied. EUV powers were varied from ~0.2mW/mm2 to 3mW/mm2(at 13.44 nm) during both deposition and cleaning experiments and the oxygen pressure ranged from ~5x10-5 to 5x10-4 Torr during the cleaning experiments. C deposition rates as high as ~8nm/hr were observed, while cleaning rates as high as ~5nm/hr could be achieved when the highest oxygen pressure were used. A limited set of experiments involving intentional oxygen-only exposure of the MLM samples showed that slow oxidation of the MLM surface could occur.
The Engineering Test Stand (ETS) is an EUV laboratory lithography tool. The purpose of the ETS is to demonstrate EUV full-field imaging and provide data required to support production-tool development. The ETS is configured to separate the imaging system and stages from the illumination system. Environmental conditions can be controlled independently in the two modules to maximize EUV throughput and environmental control. A source of 13.4 nm radiation is provided by a laser plasma source in which a YAG laser beam is focused onto a xenon-cluster target. A condenser system, comprised of multilayer-coated mirrors and grazing-incidence mirrors, collects the EUV radiation and directs it onto a reflecting reticle. A four-mirror, ring-field optical system, having a numerical aperture of 0.1, projects a 4x-reduction image onto the wafer plane. This design corresponds to a resolution of 70 nm at a k1 of 0.52. The ETS is designed to produce full- field images in step-and-scan mode using vacuum-compatible, one-dimension-long-travel magnetically levitated stages for both reticle and wafer. Reticle protection is incorporated into the ETS design. This paper provides a system overview of the ETS design and specifications.
Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) is a candidate for future application by the semiconductor industry in the production of sub-100 nm feature sizes in integrated circuits. Using multilayer reflective coatings optimized at wavelengths ranging from 11 to 14 nm, EUVL represents a potential successor to currently existing optical lithography techniques. In order to assess lifetimes of the multilayer coatings under realistic conditions, a series of radiation stability tests has been performed. In each run a dose of EUV radiation equivalent to several months of lithographic operation was applied to Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer coatings within a few days. Depending on the residual gas concentration in the vacuum environment, surface deposition of carbon during the exposure lead to losses in the multilayer reflectivity. However, in none of the experimental runs was structural damage within the bulk of the multilayers observed. Mo/Si multilayer coatings recovered their full original reflectivity after removal of the carbon layer by an ozone cleaning method. Auger depth profiling on Mo/Be multilayers indicate that carbon penetrated into the Be top layer during illumination with high doses of EUV radiation. Subsequent ozone cleaning fully removed the carbon, but revealed enhanced oxidation of the area illuminated, which led to an irreversible loss in reflectance on the order of 1%.