Common Hartmann wavefront sensor bases on planar reference wave which prevent it measure the aberration of spherical wave directly. When adjusting an optical system with a Hartmann wavefront sensor, the optical path should be collimated firstly. It will make the measurement more complicated and may bring new aberration. To solve the problem, a Hartmann wavefront sensor which bases on spherical reference wave is proposed. In this paper, we analyze the principles of the Hartmann wavefront sensor and verify its feasibility by numerical simulation. The simulation result shows that, on the condition of RMS=1λ(λ=0.6328μm), the relative RMS of the residual error of the reconstructed wavefront is under 8% when the detected wavefront is the 2~15th order Zernike aberration.
Multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) has been proved to obtain the high resolution images with a large field of view in solar observation. A solar MCAO experiment system had been successfully developed and tested at the 1-meter New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) of Fuxian Solar Observatory. It consists of two deformable mirrors (DMs), a multidirection Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (MD-WFS), and a real-time controller. In order to command the two DMs, five guide regions were selected from the MD-WFS to retrieve a three-dimensional measurement of the turbulent volume based on atmospheric tomography. This system saw the first light in October, 2017, and a series of MCAO-corrected high resolution sunspots images were acquired. In this presentation, the MCAO experiment system is introduced, and the observation results are presented. Furthermore, a new MCAO system based on our proposed MCAO configuration with a high order ground layer adaptive optics and low order high altitude correction will be developed for the NVST as a regularly operating instrument for scientific observations of the sun.
Correlating Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor is widely used in solar adaptive optics in which the relative shift between
different subapertures by correlation algorithm is computed, and then the control voltage by wavefront
reconstruction can be estimated to use for correcting the wavefront distortion induced by atmospheric turbulence. In this
paper, several different correlation algorithms including Cross-Correlation Coefficient, Absolute Difference Function,
Absolute Difference Function-Squared and Square Difference Function are used to estimate relative shift in correlating
Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor with the different observed solar structure such as sunspot, solar pore and solar
granulation. The measurement noise RMS error is computed to compare the performance of the correlation algorithms.
The results show the correlation algorithm precision is directly related to the solar structure. The measurement noise is
relatively small with the relatively high contrast target, and vice versa. At the same time, the size of reference image also
could influence the measurement noise, the larger size of the reference image, the smaller the measurement noise is.
Adaptive Optics (AO) has become the requisite equipment of the ground-based large solar telescope to correct the wavefront aberration induced by the atmospheric turbulence. Two generation solar AO systems, one is the 37-element loworder AO system with 2100Hz frame rate and the other is 151-element high-order AO system with 3500Hz frame rate, were successfully developed in 2013 and 2015 respectively. In this presentation, the development of the two AO systems for 1-m New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) at Fuxian Solar Observatory (FSO) will be introduced and the solar high resolution observational results are presented.
The resolution of the astronomical object observed by the earth-based telescope is limited due to the atmospheric turbulence. Speckle image reconstruction method provides access to detect small-scale solar features near the diffraction limit of the telescope. This paper describes the implementation of the reconstruction of images obtained by the 1-m new vacuum solar telescope at Full-Shine solar observatory. Speckle masking method is used to reconstruct the Fourier phases for its better dynamic range and resolution capabilities. Except of the phase reconstruction process, several problems encounter in the solar image reconstruction are discussed. The details of the implement including the flat-field, image segmentation, Fried parameter estimation and noise filter estimating are described particularly. It is demonstrated that the speckle image reconstruction is effective to restore the wide field of view images. The qualities of the restorations are evaluated by the contrast ratio. When the Fried parameter is 10cm, the contrast ratio of the sunspot and granulation can be improved from 0.3916 to 0.6845 and from 0.0248 to 0.0756 respectively.