LiteBIRD is a candidate for JAXA’s strategic large mission to observe the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization over the full sky at large angular scales. It is planned to be launched in the 2020s with an H3 launch vehicle for three years of observations at a Sun-Earth Lagrangian point (L2). The concept design has been studied by researchers from Japan, U.S., Canada and Europe during the ISAS Phase-A1. Large scale measurements of the CMB B-mode polarization are known as the best probe to detect primordial gravitational waves. The goal of LiteBIRD is to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio (r) with precision of r < 0:001. A 3-year full sky survey will be carried out with a low frequency (34 - 161 GHz) telescope (LFT) and a high frequency (89 - 448 GHz) telescope (HFT), which achieve a sensitivity of 2.5 μK-arcmin with an angular resolution 30 arcminutes around 100 GHz. The concept design of LiteBIRD system, payload module (PLM), cryo-structure, LFT and verification plan is described in this paper.
The cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation is an afterglow of the Big Bang. It contains the crucial keys to understand the beginning of the universe. In particular, the odd-parity patterns of CMB polarization, B-modes, at more than degree-scale, are the best probe to detect primordial gravitational waves at the cosmic inflation. The GroundBIRD experiment aims to detect this large angular scale patterns from the ground. The experiment employs novel techniques; a high-speed rotational scanning system (20 revolution-per-minutes) with cold optics below 4K, and microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) as the focal plane detectors. The fast scanning modulation is a crucial characteristic in our observation strategy to mitigate effects of the atmospheric fluctuation. The telescope rotates and scans the sky along the azimuth at the elevation angle of 60 degrees at Teide observatory in the Canary Islands. It allows us to measure CMB polarization patterns at a wide multipole range, 6 < \ell < 300, i.e.
aiming to catch the reionization bump. We have developed a telescope mount with 3-axis rotation mechanism (azimuth, elevation, and boresight). We are evaluating the vibration at the focal plane position with rotating the telescope mount. The focal plane consists of seven hexagonal corrugated horn coupled MKIDs array: six hexagon units are for 145 GHz band (55 pixels/unit), and one unit is for 220 GHz band (112 pixels). Each pixel consists of a corrugated horn, a planner OMT, millimeter wave circuits for transmission of dual-polarization signals with the suppression of crosstalk modes, and two MKIDs for each polarization. Magnetic shields are also mounted so as to suppress the external magnetic fields. Trapped magnetic fields inside of the superconducting materials decrease the performance of the MKID. The geomagnetism is the static and large magnetic fields. The telescope motion makes modulation of the geomagnetism as well as the modulation of CMB signals. Therefore, we need careful evaluation associating with the telescope rotation. By using a small evaluation system with modulated magnetic fields, we understand impacts the magnetic shield as well as responses of the MKID for the modulated magnetic field. We
design the shield based on them. In this presentation, we will report an evaluation of detector responses on the high-speed rotating system along the azimuth. We will also show demonstrations of our own readout electronics which is well matching with the rapid scan modulation strategy.