X-ray Grating Talbot Interferometer (XGTI) is already routinely used for quantitative phase contrast imaging of soft tissue samples. XGTI can be realized using various measurement techniques, depending on the X-ray source used, the required spatial resolution and the speed of acquisition. The phase-stepping measurement technique, which is commonly used for XGTI data acquisition, needs multiple acquisitions for a single projection. For fast imaging the Moiré technique, a single-shot technique, is often preferred. However, it requires two gratings which increases the dose on the sample. We have therefore examined the Spatial Harmonic Imaging (SHI) technique which is low-dose and single-shot, using the I13-2 Diamond-Manchester Beamline at Diamond Light Source (DLS). The DLS I13-2 beamline is equipped with a Double Crystal Monochromator (DCM) and a Multi-Layer Monochromator (MLM) to deliver monochromatic beam, which work at the energy bandwidths (ΔE/E) of 10-4 and 10-2, respectively. However, the disadvantage of using these monochromators, especially for fast imaging, is loss of X-ray flux. It has already been shown that XGTI can work with an energy bandwidth (ΔE/E) of 10-1. Our aim is to develop a single phase grating interferometer with pink beam from an undulator source, with X-ray mirror optics and multiple absorption filters, to obtain maximum possible flux with sufficient coherence and monochromaticity. We demonstrate performance with optimized beamline parameters for a photon energy of 15 keV with some demonstrative image reconstructions.
The Diamond Beamline I13L is dedicated to micro- and nano- imaging, with two independently operating branchlines. The imaging branch preforms imaging in real space, with In-line phase contrast imaging and grating interferometry at micrometre resolution and full-field transmission microscopy up to 50nm spatial resolution. Highest spatial resolution is achieved on the coherence branchline, where diffraction imaging methods such as Ptychography and Bragg-CDI are performed. The article provides an update about the experimental capabilities at the beamline with an emphasis on the rapidly evolving ptychography capabilities. The latter has evolved to an user-friendly method with non-expert users able to explore their science without any specific a-priory knowledge.
The DIAMOND beamline I13L is dedicated to multi-scale and multi-modal imaging in real and reciprocal space. The beamline consists of two independently operating experimental stations, located at a distance of more than 200 m from the source. The Imaging Branch performs micro-tomography with in-line phase contrast in the 6-30 keV energy range. In addition, a grating interferometry setup and a full-field microscope for nano-tomography are currently implemented. Other techniques providing high-resolution three-dimensional information, in particular coherent X-ray diffraction, are hosted on the Coherence Branch. All imaging methods are tested to operate with large energy bandwidths and therefore shorter exposure times. To this end, two options are currently used: the so-called ‘pink-beam’ mode using a reflecting mirror and X-ray filters and monochromatic mode using a multilayer monochromator. The operation mode enables science for in-situ and operando studies across a wide range of scientific areas.
The Diamond Beamline I13L is dedicated to imaging on the micro- and nano-lengthsale, operating in the energy range
between 6 and 30keV. For this purpose two independently operating branchlines and endstations have been built. The
imaging branch is fully operational for micro-tomography and in-line phase contrast imaging with micrometre
resolution. Grating interferometry is currently implemented, adding the capability of measuring phase and small-angle
information. For tomography with increased resolution a full-field microscope providing 50nm spatial resolution with a
field of view of 100μm is being tested. The instrument provides a large working distance between optics and sample to
adapt a wide range of customised sample environments. On the coherence branch coherent diffraction imaging
techniques such as ptychography, coherent X-ray diffraction (CXRD) are currently developed for three dimensional
imaging with the highest resolution.
The imaging branch is operated in collaboration with Manchester University, called therefore the Diamond-Manchester
Branchline. The scientific applications cover a large area including bio-medicine, materials science, chemistry geology
and more. The present paper provides an overview about the current status of the beamline and the science addressed.