Primary standards of optical radiation total radiant flux are traditionally realized by absolute cryogenic radiometers  working on the principle of electrical substitution with a relative total uncertainty of 1e-4 in the power measurement. The current cryogenic radiometers though operate over a limited spectral range, usually from 350 nm to 800 nm and working with free space beam. For fibre optics telecom spectral range 1300 nm - 1650 nm this scale is then extended in several steps, typically via application of other standard detector systems such as spectrally flat room temperature pyro detectors  and spectrally dependent temperature stabilized solid state detectors , which adversely affects the scale accuracy by a factor of approximately one order of magnitude. The typical relative total uncertainty of state-of-the-art transfer standard fibre coupled detectors reaches 0.5 %.
Recently published results on planar electrical-substitution carbon nanotube cryogenic radiometer (PCBR)  brought the opportunities for using these systems as new absolute primary standards in telecom spectral range directly in fibre coupled configuration. This shortens the traceability chain, with a potential improvement in the total uncertainty to below 0.1 %. CMI in collaboration with NIST are developing the first prototypes of fibre coupled PCBR systems. First both free space and fibre coupled measurements have confirmed radiometric The paper will present both the core physical parameters of these PCBR electrical-substitution systems and initial results including the currently achieved agreement of traditional transfer standards with the PCBR at the level of 0.2 %.
The work reported in this abstract was partially funded by project EMPIR 14IND13 PhotInd. This project has received funding from the EMPIR programme co-financed by the Participating States and from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme.
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 N A Tomlin, M White, I Vayshenker, S I Woods and J H Lehman, Planar electrical-substitution carbon nanotube cryogenic radiometer 2015 Metrologia 52 376
The Radiometric Calibration Network (RadCalNet, www.radcalnet.org) routinely brings together data from several instrumented ground sites to provide users with top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance data. These data are provided on cloud free days between 09:00 and 15:00 for the spectral range 400 to 1000 nm (and up to 2500 nm depending on available instrumentation) at a 10 nm spectral resolution. The data represents the nadir view of the ground. A key aspect to RadCalNet is a strict adherence to SI-traceability leading to well-understood and defensible uncertainty analysis to ensure that the different sites operating within RadCalNet are consistent with one another. This process includes the requirement to validate uncertainty analyses. One way in which this can be achieved is through field-based comparisons between independently measured reflectance of the ground and the RadCalNet data product for that date / time. To test the potential of such comparisons for uncertainty validation, a comparison campaign has been un- dertaken by the UK’s National Physical Laboratory (NPL) with the University of Arizona (UA) in March 2017 at the Railroad Valley radiometric test site in Nevada, USA using instruments developed for the purpose by UA and the Czech Metrology Institute (CMI). The measurements taken at the site with a new instrument, the Multispectral Transfer Radiometer (MuSTR) have been compared against the RadCalNet bottom-of-atmosphere (BOA) dataset to determine the equivalence of the reflectance. Radiances from MuSTR have also been compared against radiance measurements from the in-situ instrumentation at the site using a 48 % reflectance tarpaulin as a target. The comparisons presented here have demonstrated the utility of field-based comparisons for RadCalNet. In addition, a potential methodology for these comparisons has been developed and potential areas for improvement, including the systematic development of field-based uncertainty analyses, have been identified.
The European Metrology Research Program (EMRP) is a metrology-focused program of coordinated Research and
Development (RD) funded by the European Commission and participating countries within the European Association
of National Metrology Institutes (EURAMET). It supports and ensures research collaboration between them by
launching and managing different types of project calls. Within the EMRP Call 2012 "Metrology for Industry", the joint
research project (JRP) entitled "Multidimensional Reflectometry for Industry" (xD-Reflect) was submitted by a
consortium of 8 National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and 2 universities and was subsequently funded. The general
objective of xD-Reflect is to meet the demands from industry to describe the overall macroscopic appearance of modern
surfaces by developing and improving methods for optical measurements which correlate with the visual sensation being
evoked. In particular, the project deals with the "Goniochromatism", "Gloss" and "Fluorescence" properties of dedicated
artifacts, which will be investigated in three main work packages (WP). Two additional transversal WP reinforce the
structure: "Modelling and Data Analysis" with the objective to give an irreducible set of calibration schemes and
handling methods and "Visual Perception", which will produce perception scales for the different visual attributes.
Multidimensional reflectometry involves the enhancement of spectral and spatial resolution of reference
gonioreflectometers for BRDF measurements using modern detectors, conoscopic optical designs, CCD cameras, line
scan cameras, and modern light sources in order to describe new effects like sparkle and graininess/coarseness. More
information and updated news concerning the project can be found on the xD-Reflect website http://www.xdreflect.eu/.
Estimate of the organic carbon content in soil is critical for global change modeling activities. Therefore, the predictive model for estimating soil carbon would provide an important tool for the scientific community. We used remotely sensed TM imaginary data together with the soil profiles and moss layer carbon data for the Northern Study Area (NSA) of the BOREAS project. Different classification and functional models of the carbon dependency on remotely sensed data were developed. The complexity of the models was scrutinized. Based on these techniques, we have developed a set of analysis tools. These tools and an Internet based access to some of these tools will be presented.