The ESO Technology Development programme consists of a series of projects aimed at developing key future technologies for astronomy and the ESO programme in particular. Key projects include deformable mirrors, lasers, detectors, real time computers and coatings. Working with industry in these areas requires careful attention to the analysis and management of risk.
The success of the next generation of instruments for 20m plus class optical telescopes will depend upon improving the image quality by exploiting sophisticated Adaptive Optics (AO) systems. For several years now, ESO has been very active in gathering requirements, planning, and developing detectors and controllers/cameras for the AO systems of the telescope and instruments of the ELT. From these requirements, the need for three different types of cameras have been identified: 1) ALICE (smALl vIsible CamEra) for Truth/High Order Natural Guide Star (NGS)/Telescope Guiding which uses the “sub-electron RON” Teledyne-e2v CCD220-DD of 240x240 of 24μm pixels; 2) LISA (Large vISble cAmera) for Shack-Hartmann Laser Guide Star (LGS)/Telescope Wavefront Sensing (WFS) which uses the Teledyne-e2v LVSM of 800x800 of 24μm pixels; 3) SAPHIRA Standalone Camera for Low-/High-Order NGS WFS/Fine Centering which uses the Leonardo SAPHIRA of 320x256 of 24μm pixels. This paper provides an update on the development of these cameras and their detectors. For ALICE and LISA, a single camera design approach is being followed with the only difference being the customizable front-ends to support the different type of detector. ALICE and LISA are being built around a common set of components and will look essentially identical from the exterior. COTS modules are being used wherever possible and practical to reduce the development effort and time, and improve functionality and maintainability. A description of the design approach, the common components and the detector specific front-ends will be presented. The LISA camera detector, the LVSM, is under development by Teledyne-e2v. A brief update on the progress of this development will be provided. For the SAPHIRA standalone camera, a different approach is being followed to that of ALICE and LISA. C-RED ONE cameras are being procured from FLI and will be modified by ESO to comply with ELT standards: 10GbE interfaces to the Real Time Computer (RTC) and NGC control computer, and Precision Time Protocol (PTP). PTP is the time reference system of the ELT and will be used by the cameras to schedule and time stamp frames and for synchronizing with other cameras or hardware devices.
In this paper we will report on the status of the instrumentation project for the European Southern Observatory's Extremely Large Telescope (ELT). Three instruments are in the construction phase: HARMONI, MICADO and METIS. The multi-conjugate adaptive optics system for MICADO, MAORY, is also under development. Preliminary Design Reviews of all of these systems are planned to be completed by mid-2019. The construction of a laser tomographic module for HARMONI is part of "Phase 2" of the ELT: the design has been advanced to Preliminary Design level in order to define the interface to the HARMONI spectrograph. Preparations for the next instruments have also been proceeding in parallel with the development of these instruments. Conceptual design studies for the multi-object spectrograph MOSAIC, and for the high resolution spectrograph HIRES have been completed and reviewed. We present the current design of each of these instruments and will summarise the work ongoing at ESO related to their development.
A suite of seven instruments and associated AO systems have been planned as the "E-ELT Instrumentation Roadmap". Following the E-ELT project approval in December 2014, rapid progress has been made in organising and signing the agreements for construction with European universities and institutes. Three instruments (HARMONI, MICADO and METIS) and one MCAO module (MAORY) have now been approved for construction. In addition, Phase-A studies have begun for the next two instruments - a multi-object spectrograph and high-resolution spectrograph. Technology development is also ongoing in preparation for the final instrument in the roadmap, the planetary camera and spectrograph. We present a summary of the status and capabilities of this first set of instruments for the E-ELT.
Over the last decade, adaptive optics has become essential in different fields of research including medicine and industrial applications. With this new need, the market of deformable mirrors has expanded a lot allowing new technologies and actuation principles to be developed. Several E-ELT instruments have identified the need for post focal deformable mirrors but with the increasing size of the telescopes the requirements on the deformable mirrors become more demanding. A simple scaling up of existing technologies from few hundred actuators to thousands of actuators will not be sufficient to satisfy the future needs of ESO. To bridge the gap between available deformable mirrors and the future needs for the E-ELT, ESO started a development program for deformable mirror technologies. The requirements and the path to get the deformable mirrors for post focal adaptive optics systems for the E-ELT is presented.
ESO has a very active on-going AO WFS detector development program to not only meet the needs of the current crop of instruments for the VLT, but also has been actively involved in gathering requirements, planning, and developing detectors and controllers/cameras for the instruments in design and being proposed for the E-ELT.
This paper provides an overall summary of the AO WFS Detector requirements of the E-ELT instruments currently in design and telescope focal units. This is followed by a description of the many interesting detector, controller, and camera developments underway at ESO to meet these needs; a) the rationale behind and plan to upgrade the 240x240 pixels, 2000fps, “zero noise”, L3Vision CCD220 sensor based AONGC camera; b) status of the LGSD/NGSD High QE, 3e- RoN, fast 700fps, 1760x1680 pixels, Visible CMOS Imager and camera development; c) status of and development plans for the Selex SAPHIRA NIR eAPD and controller.
Most of the instruments and detector/camera developments are described in more detail in other papers at this conference.
The Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics module for the European Extremely Large Telescope has been designed to achieve uniform compensation of the atmospheric turbulence effects on a wide field of view in the near infrared. The design realized in the Phase A of the project is undergoing major revision in order to define a robust baseline in view of the next phases of the project. An overview of the on-going activities is presented.
We present the status of the instrumentation programme for the European Extremely Large Telescope. The
instrumentation planning is governed by the E-ELT Instrument Roadmap, which synthesises the scientific, technical and
managerial influences on the instrument programme into a staged development plan. Preparations for the start of the
design and build phases of the first light instruments and their adaptive optics systems are well underway and are
summarised here. In parallel, the process for development of the next three instruments has begun. Recent work on the
instrument interface to the telescope is described.
The development plan for instrumentation at the Paranal Observatory was outlined at SPIE in 2012. Its overall goal
is to keep Paranal at the forefront of ground-based astronomy. In addition to the completion of the current second
generation instruments, the installation of the Adaptive Optics Facility and execution of the Very Large Telescope
Interferometer mid-term implementation plan, it will allow one new instrument, or instrument upgrade, to be
initiated per year. The plan is divided into two phases. Over 2013-2017, instruments are selected and developed with
the criteria of filling the VLT capabilities and maintaining the balance between dedicated and general purpose
facilities. Beyond 2018, the instruments will be deployed in the era of maturity of the European Extremely Large
Telescope (E-ELT). The strategy for the second phase derives from analysis of VLT science in the E-ELT era, to be
fully shaped in the coming five years. The Call for ideas for a new instrument for the New Technology Telescope at
La Silla, fully funded by the community, has just been issued.
We present plans for instrumentation on the European Extremely Large Telescope. ESO is working with its community
of astronomers and instrument builders to develop the E-ELT Instrumentation Roadmap. The roadmap is a timeline of
the steps towards the full instrument programme, from specification of the scientific requirements, via a technology
development phase, to selection of the instrument concepts. Key goals are to be flexibile to new ideas and to ensure the
timely, on-budget delivery of instruments that meet the community's scientific needs. The result is an exciting
programme of seven instruments planned over the first decade of the telescope construction phase.
The ESO instrumentation programme now encompasses both an on-going programme for La-Silla Paranal observatory
and a new programme for construction of the instruments for the E-ELT. The scale and ambition of the combined
programme will present a future challenge for the European instrument-building community and for ESO as managing
organisation. The current status and plans are summarised.
During the last year a modified baseline design for the E-ELT has been developed. The aim of this revision was both to
achieve a significant cost saving and to reduce risk on major items. The primary mirror diameter was slightly reduced to
39 m and the total height of the telescope also decreased accordingly. This paper describes the work performed by ESO
and a variety of contractors to review the EELT design to match the modified baseline. Detailed design and construction
planning, as well as detailed cost estimates were updated for the 39-metre baseline design. In June 2011, ESO Council
formally endorsed this modified design as the E-ELT revised baseline.
The design drivers and balancing cost factors will be described along with the risk reduction measures taken during this
phase. This will culminate in the design which has been agreed as being ready to move forward to construction once
approval from ESO Council has been achieved.
In this paper we present a brief status report on the conceptual designs of the instruments and adaptive optics modules
that have been studied for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). In parallel with the design study for the
42-m telescope, ESO launched 8 studies devoted to the proposed instruments and 2 for post-focal adaptive optics
systems. The studies were carried out in consortia of ESO member state institutes or, in two cases, by ESO in
collaboration with external institutes. All studies have now been successfully completed. The result is a powerful set of
facility instruments which promise to deliver the scientific goals of the telescope.
The aims of the individual studies were broad: to explore the scientific capabilities required to meet the E-ELT science
goals, to examine the technical feasibility of the instrument, to understand the requirements placed on the telescope
design and to develop a delivery plan. From the perspective of the observatory, these are key inputs to the development
of the proposal for the first generation E-ELT instrument suite along with the highest priority science goals and
budgetary and technical constraints. We discuss the lessons learned and some of the key results of the process.
KMOS is a near-infrared multi-object integral-field spectrometer which is one of a suite of second-generation
instruments under construction for the VLT. The instrument is being built by a consortium of UK and German
institutes working in partnership with ESO and is now in the manufacture, integration and test phase. In this paper
we present an overview of recent progress with the design and build of KMOS and present the first results from the
subsystem test and integration.
The first-generation instrument development programme for the VLT/I has now come to a close. The delivered
instruments which have served the astronomical community since first light at Paranal in 1998, have provided
astronomers with general purpose capabilities covering the available wavelength range from the UV to mid infrared. The
second-generation programme has now begun with delivery of X-shooter, and a further six new instruments (SPHERE,
MUSE, KMOS, ESPRESSO, GRAVITY, MATISSE) are under construction, marking a transition to more specialised
scientific capabilities designed for a more limited but very ambitious set of science goals. In addition, instrumentation at
La Silla telescopes continues to be effective in producing scientific results, especially through the planet-finder HARPS
on the 3.6m. Future plans should see a transfer of resources to E-ELT instrument construction while new instrument
development for the VLT will continue, but at a slower pace.
CRIRES is a cryogenic, pre-dispersed, infrared Echelle spectrograph designed to provide a nominal resolving
power ν/Δν of 105 between 1000 and 5000 nm for a nominal slit width of 0.2". The CRIRES installation at
the Nasmyth focus A of the 8-m VLT UT1 (Antu) marks the completion of the original instrumentation plan
for the VLT. A curvature sensing adaptive optics system feed is used to minimize slit losses and to provide 0.2"
spatial resolution along the slit. A mosaic of four Aladdin InSb-arrays packaged on custom-fabricated ceramic
boards has been developed. It provides for an effective 4096 × 512 pixel focal plane array to maximize the free
spectral range covered in each exposure. Insertion of gas cells is possible in order to measure radial velocities with
high precision. Measurement of circular and linear polarization in Zeeman sensitive lines for magnetic Doppler
imaging is foreseen but not yet fully implemented. A cryogenic Wollaston prism on a kinematic mount is already
incorporated. The retarder devices will be located close to the Unit Telescope focal plane. Here we briefly recall
the major design features of CRIRES and describe the commissioning of the instrument including a report of
extensive testing and a preview of astronomical results.
The European Southern Observatory (ESO) is conducting a phase B study of a European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT).
The baseline concept foresees a 42m primary, 5 mirror adaptive telescope with two of the mirrors giving the
possibility of very fast correction of the atmospheric turbulence. In parallel to the telescope study, ESO is coordinating
8 studies of instruments and 2 of post-focus Adaptive Optics systems, carried out in collaboration with Institutes in the
member states. Scope of the studies, to be completed by 1Q 2010, is to demonstrate that the high priority scientific goals of
the E-ELT project can be achieved with feasible and affordable instruments. The main observing modes being considered
are: NIR wide field imaging and spectroscopy to the diffraction limit or with partial correction of the atmospheric seeing;
high spectral resolution, high stability visible spectroscopy; high contrast, diffraction limited imaging and spectroscopy; DL
mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopy. The status of the 8 current studies is presented.
The title of this paper was chosen to highlight the fact that the installation and operation of instrumentation on Extremely
Large Telescopes (ELTs) will not be entirely simple or straightforward. The cost of construction and operation of ELTs
will be such that substantial pressures will develop for proportional increases in the level of performance of the
instrumentation, using as much of the electromagnetic information arriving at the focal plane as possible. This in turn
will require complex instruments using adaptive optics, multiple channels or highly spatially multiplexed instruments. In
the case of the European ELT, it will be a facility much in demand by ESOs 4000+ community of astronomers. The
instrument infrastructure must therefore be able to accommodate the full range of projects likely to be undertaken. In this
paper, we will discuss the instrument interfaces and infrastructure as envisioned in the current baseline for the European
ELT and the requirements underpinning them.
HAWK-I is the newly commissioned High Acuity Wide-field K-band Imager at the ESO Very Large Telescope. It is a
0.9-2.5 micron imager with a field of view of 7.5×7.5 arcmin sampled at 106 mas with four Hawaii2RG detectors. It has
a full reflective design that was optimised for image quality and throughput.We present an overview of its performance as
measured during the commissioning and first science runs. In particular, we describe a detector read-out mode that allows
us to increase the useful dynamic range of the detector, and a distortion calibration resulting in <5mas relative astrometry
across the field.
HAWK-I is a new wide-field infrared camera under development at ESO. With four Hawaii-2RG detectors, a 7.5 arcminute square field of view and 0.1 arcsecond pixels, it will be an optimum imager for the VLT, and a major enhancement to existing and future infrared capabilities at ESO. HAWK-I will eventually make use of ground-layer AO achieved through a deformable secondary mirror/laser guide star facility planned for the VLT.
The UKIRT Wide-Field Camera (WFCAM) was commissioned in two phases between October and December 2004, and March and April 2005. It has been carrying out full-scale sky survey operations since May 2005. This paper describes the commissioning process and compares actual performance on the telescope with specifications in four key areas: optical image quality including delivered FWHM and ghosting etc., noise and sensitivity in the infrared and on the visible autoguider, array artifacts such as crosstalk and persistent images, and observing efficiency. A comprehensive program of science verification was carried out before commencing the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS).
KMOS is a near-infrared multi-object integral field spectrometer which has been selected as one of a suite of second-generation instruments to be constructed for the ESO VLT in Chile. The instrument will be built by a consortium of UK and German institutes working in partnership with ESO and is currently at the end of its preliminary design phase. We present the design status of KMOS and discuss the most novel technical aspects and the compliance with the technical specification.
An update on the design status of the UKIRT Wide Field Camera (WFCAM) is presented. WFCAM is a wide field infrared camera for the UK Infrared Telescope, designed to produce large scale infrared surveys. The complete system consists of a new IR camera with integral autoguider and a new tip/tilt secondary mirror unit. WFCAM is being designed and built by a team at the UK Astronomy Technology Centre in Edinburgh, supported by the Joint Astronomy Centre in Hawaii. The camera uses a novel quasi-Schmidt camera type design, with the camera mounted above the UKIRT primary mirror. The optical system operates over 0.7 - 2.4 μm and has a large corrected field of view of 0.9° diameter. The focal plane is sparsely populated with 4 2K x 2K Rockwell HAWAII-2 MCT array detectors, giving a pixel scale of 0.4 arcsec/pixel. A separate autoguider CCD is integrated into the focal plane unit. Parallel detector controllers are used, one for each of the four IR arrays and a fifth for the autoguider CCD.
Systems Engineering has been used throughout the development of the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA). VISTA was originally conceived as being a classic 4m telescope with wide-field imaging capability. The UK Astronomy Technology Centre (UK ATC) radically changed this thinking by treating the whole design as one system, integrating the camera optics into the telescope design.
To maximise the performance, an f/1 primary mirror was adopted resulting in a very compact telescope and enclosure. Amongst other benefits, this reduced the overall mass of the telescope from 250 to 90 tonnes. During this optimisation process, the concept of a direct imaging K-short camera was developed. This development, in conjunction with an increase in IR field of view, produced a system with uniform image quality and throughput across a 350 mm diameter focal plane, 1.65 degree field.
While this has presented some major engineering challenges, the approach has produced a system which is both scientifically rewarding and achievable. The optimisation, design trade-offs and Technical Specification developed in the conceptual design phase were achieved through a systems analysis approach.
This paper describes some of the key systems engineering decisions and the tools employed to achieve them. Current systems engineering activities are described and future plans outlined.
This paper describes the conceptual design for a near infrared camera for the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA). VISTA is a 4m class survey telescope that is being designed to perform pre-planned, ground-based astronomical surveys of the Southern sky from ESO's Cerro Paranal Observatory in Chile. The IR Surveys will be carried out in the J, H and Kshort wave-bands at fainter magnitudes than those produced by the current generation of survey telescopes. To maximise throughput and survey efficiency, the camera has been completely integrated with the overall optical design with the telescope mirrors providing the power and the camera optics the wavefront correction. The camera design employs a non-traditional approach to control stray light by using cryogenic baffles rather than the more traditional cold-stop approach. The very large optical field available, 1.6° diameter with a plate scale of approximately 57μm/arcsec, means that the focal plane can accommodate sixteen 2k×2k IR detectors thus forming the largest IR focal plane used in ground based astronomy to date. The 67 Mpixel focal plane will generate a significant data rate. Each exposure will comprise 270 MB and a typical night will generate 400 GB.
This paper describes an ambitious new wide field IR camera for the 3.8m UK IR Telescope (UKIRT), located on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The camera, currently under design at the UK Astronomy Technology Center, will include 4 2048 by 2048 pixel focal plane array IR detectors operating over a wavelength range of 1-2.5 micrometers . The optics provide a 1 degree diameter corrected field of view and a pixel scale of 0.4 arcsec per pixel. A novel Schmnidt type optical design allows the large field to be imaged with excellent image quality. The optical design includes a cold stop to maximize rejection of background radiation and stray light. Precise microstepping will be used to improve sampling. Four parallel data acquisition and processing channels will be used to cope with the large data rates expected. It is envisaged that a substantial fraction of UKIRT time will be devoted to large area sky surveys once WFCAM is operational, resulting in a unique IR catalogue containing hundreds of millions of objects.
The Visible and Infra-red Survey Telescope for Astronomy, or VISTA, is a UK funded four meter class wide-field, infrared and optical survey telescope to be situated in Chile. The telescope, which can be regarded as a two-channel camera, provides a one-degree, infrared field and a two-degree, optical field. The project goal of low running cost requires minimal intervention by support staff. The optical configuration of the telescope must meet the scientific requirements while delivering a stable instrument profile for the 12-year duration of the survey. Accurate calibration of throughput, image quality and field distortion will be essential to the photometric and astrometric quality of that survey. The process for selection of optical design options is described and discussed with particular reference to meeting the functional and performance requirements, determined from the scientific specification, and to achieving a predictable and reliable image quality. The practical limitations imposed by budgetary and operational requirements are assessed for their role as contributory design drivers.
A number of preliminary optical designs for a new generation of 4 meter astronomical survey telescopes have been investigated. These have large fields of view and operate in both the visible and near IR astronomical wavebands. Typical requirements for dual band systems of this type are presented. Two designs for prime focus refractive field corrector systems are presented, with and without aspheric surfaces. The use of aspheric surfaces on the field corrector lenses is shown to allow a large field of view to be achieved. A design for a three mirror reflective system is presented which also allows a 2 degree field to be achieved. An IR imager, based on a modified Schmidt camera, is presented which allows a 1 degree field of view to be achieved. Additionally, a modified Ritchey-Chretien telescope, incorporating refracting field corrector lenses is presented. This design provides a large field of view over both the visible and IR wavebands. The mechanical constraints of combining these systems into dual channel systems are also discussed.