A thermally buckled piezoelectric energy harvester is designed to power biomedical devices inside the body. The energy harvester (EN) uses the vibrations inside the body to generate the electricity needed for powering biomedical sensors and devices. The piezoelectric beam consists of a brass substrate and two piezoelectric patches attached to the top and the bottom of the substrate. The bimorph beam is inside a rigid frame. The bimorph beam is buckled due to the difference in the coefficient of the thermal expansion of the beam and the frame.
Inside the body, most of the energy content come from the low-frequency vibrations (less than 50 Hz). Having high natural frequency is a major problem in Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) energy harvesters. Considering the small size of the EN, 1 ܿ݉cm3, the natural frequency is expected to be high. In our design, the natural frequency is lowered significantly by using a buckled beam. A mass is also used in the middle of the beam to decrease the natural frequency even more. Since the beam is buckled, the design is bistable and nonlinear which increases the output power.
In this paper, the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the EN are analytically derived. The geometric nonlinearities are included in the electromechanical coupled governing equations. The governing equations are solved and it is shown that the device generates sufficient electricity to power biomedical sensors and devices inside the human body.
The design and modeling of a bar made of functionally graded materials are studied in this paper. The material properties of the bar are harmonically varied along the bar. The bar is mathematically modeled and its governing equation is derived. The mode shapes and the natural frequencies of the system are calculated analytically using the boundary conditions at the two ends of the bar. The wave propagation in the bar is studied and the frequency band gap of the system is found. It is shown that by varying the material properties of the bar, we can design a system with a desired frequency band gap.