POLARBEAR-2 (PB-2) is a cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiment for B-mode detection. The PB-2 receiver has a large focal plane and aperture that consists of 7588 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers at 250 mK. The receiver consists of the optical cryostat housing reimaging lenses and infrared filters, and the detector cryostat housing TES bolometers. The large focal plane places substantial requirements on the thermal design of the optical elements at the 4K, 50K, and 300K stages. Infrared filters and lenses inside the optical cryostat are made of alumina for this purpose. We measure basic properties of alumina, such as the index of refraction, loss tangent and thermal conductivity. All results meet our requirements. We also optically characterize filters and lenses made of alumina. Finally, we perform a cooling test of the entire optical cryostat. All measured temperature values satisfy our requirements. In particular, the temperature rise between the center and edge of the alumina infrared filter at 50 K is only 2:0 ± 1:4 K. Based on the measurements, we estimate the incident power to each thermal stage.
For the next generation of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments, kilopixel arrays of Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers are necessary to achieve the required sensitivity and their science goals. We are developing read-out electronics for POLARBEAR-2 CMB experiment, which multiplexes 32-TES bolometers through a single superconducting quantum interface device (SQUID). To increase both the bandwidth of the SQUID electronics and the multiplexing factor, we are modifying cold wiring and developing LC filters, and a low-inductance superconducting cable. Using these components, we will show frequency domain multiplexing up to 3 MHz.
POLARBEAR-2 is a next-generation receiver for precision measurements of polarization of the cosmic microwave background, scheduled to deploy in 2015. It will feature a large focal plane, cooled to 250 milliKelvin, with 7,588 polarization-sensitive antenna-coupled transition edge sensor bolometers, read-out with frequency domain multiplexing with 32 bolometers on a single SQUID amplifier. We will present results from testing and characterization of new readout components, integrating these components into a scaled-down readout system for validation of the design and technology.
We describe the design of a new polarization sensitive receiver, spt-3g, for the 10-meter South Pole Telescope (spt). The spt-3g receiver will deliver a factor of ~20 improvement in mapping speed over the current receiver, spt-pol. The sensitivity of the spt-3g receiver will enable the advance from statistical detection of B-mode polarization anisotropy power to high signal-to-noise measurements of the individual modes, i.e., maps. This will lead to precise (~0.06 eV) constraints on the sum of neutrino masses with the potential to directly address the neutrino mass hierarchy. It will allow a separation of the lensing and inflationary B-mode power spectra, improving constraints on the amplitude and shape of the primordial signal, either through spt-3g data alone or in combination with bicep2/keck, which is observing the same area of sky. The measurement of small-scale temperature anisotropy will provide new constraints on the epoch of reionization. Additional science from the spt-3g survey will be significantly enhanced by the synergy with the ongoing optical Dark Energy Survey (des), including: a 1% constraint on the bias of optical tracers of large-scale structure, a measurement of the differential Doppler signal from pairs of galaxy clusters that will test General Relativity on ~200Mpc scales, and improved cosmological constraints from the abundance of clusters of galaxies
We are developing multi-chroic antenna-coupled TES detectors for CMB polarimetry. Multi-chroic detectors in- crease the mapping speed per focal plane area and provide greater discrimination of polarized galactic foregrounds with no increase in weight or cryogenic cost. In each pixel, a silicon lens-coupled dual polarized sinuous antenna collects light over a two-octave frequency band. The antenna couples the broadband millimeter wave signal into microstrip transmission lines, and on-chip filter banks split the broadband signal into several frequency bands. Separate TES bolometers detect the power in each frequency band and linear polarization. We will describe the design and performance of these devices and present optical data taken with prototype pixels. Our measurements show beams with percent level ellipticity, percent level cross-polarization leakage, and partitioned bands using banks of 2, 3, and 7 filters. We will also describe the development of broadband anti-reflection coatings for the high dielectric constant lens. The broadband anti-reflection coating has approximately 100% bandwidth and no detectable loss at cryogenic temperature. Finally, we will describe an upgrade for the Polarbear CMB experiment and installation for the LiteBIRD CMB satellite experiment both of which have focal planes with kilo-pixel of these detectors to achieve unprecedented mapping speed.
POLARBEAR-2 is a ground based cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation experiment observing from Atacama, Chile. The science goals of POLARBEAR-2 are to measure the CMB polarization signals originating from the inflationary gravity-wave background and weak gravitational lensing. In order to achieve these science goals, POLARBEAR-2 employs 7588 polarization sensitive transition edge sensor bolometers at observing fre quencies of 95 and 150 GHz with 5.5 and 3.5 arcmin beam width, respectively. The telescope is the off-axis Gregorian, Huan Tran Telescope, on which the POLARBEAR-1 receiver is currently mounted. The polarimetry is based on modulation of the polarized signal using a rotating half-wave plate and the rotation of the sky. We present the developments of the optical and polarimeter designs including the cryogenically cooled refractive optics that achieve the overall 4 degrees field-of-view, the thermal filter design, the broadband anti-reflection coating, and the rotating half-wave plate.
The POLARBEAR Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization experiment is currently observing from the Atacama Desert in Northern Chile. It will characterize the expected B-mode polarization due to gravitational lensing of the CMB, and search for the possible B-mode signature of inflationary gravitational waves. Its 250 mK focal plane detector array consists of 1,274 polarization-sensitive antenna-coupled bolometers, each with an associated lithographed band-defining filter. Each detector’s planar antenna structure is coupled to the telescope’s optical system through a contacting dielectric lenslet, an architecture unique in current CMB experiments. We present the initial characterization of this focal plane.
We present the design and characterization of the POLARBEAR experiment. POLARBEAR will measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on angular scales ranging from the experiment’s 3.5’ beam size to several degrees. The experiment utilizes a unique focal plane of 1,274 antenna-coupled, polarization sensitive TES bolometers cooled to 250 milliKelvin. Employing this focal plane along with stringent control over systematic errors, POLARBEAR has the sensitivity to detect the expected small scale B-mode signal due to gravitational lensing and search for the large scale B-mode signal from inflationary gravitational waves. POLARBEAR was assembled for an engineering run in the Inyo Mountains of California in 2010 and was deployed in late 2011 to the Atacama Desert in Chile. An overview of the instrument is presented along with characterization results from observations in Chile.
POLARBEAR-2 (PB-2) is a cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiment observing at Atacama plateau in Chile. PB-2 is designed to improve the sensitivity to measure the CMB B-mode polarization by upgrading the current POLARBEAR-1 receiver that is currently mounted on the Huan Tran telescope. The improvements in PB-2 include, i) the dual band observations at 95 GHz and 150 GHz in each pixel using an sinuous antenna, ii) the increase of the total number of detectors, 7588 Al-Ti bilayer transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers, iii) the bath temperature of bolometers at 100mK in the second phase of observation (300mK in the first phase.) With the expected sensitivity of 5.7 μK √ s, PB-2 is sensitive to a tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, of 0.01 at 95% confidence level (CL) and constrains the sum of neutrino masses as 90meV by PB-2 alone and 40meV by combining PB-2 and Planck at 68% CL. We schedule to deploy in 2014.
POLARBEAR is a Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization experiment that will search for evidence
of inflationary gravitational waves and gravitational lensing in the polarization of the CMB. This proceeding
presents an overview of the design of the instrument and the architecture of the focal plane, and shows some of
the recent tests of detector performance and early data from the ongoing engineering run.
We are developing dual-polarized multi-channel antenna-coupled Transition Edge Sensor (TES) Bolometers for
Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Polarimetry in terrestrial experiments. Each pixel of the array couples
incident power into the lithographed microstrip circuits with a dual-polarized broadband planar sinuous antenna
who's gain is increased with a contacting extended hemispherical lens. Microstrip filter manifolds partition the
two-octave bandwidth into narrow channels before terminating at separate TES bolometers. We describe the
design methodology and fabrication methods used, and also the results of optical tests that show high optical
throughput in properly located bands, as well as high cross-polarization rejection. We have explored two antenna
feeding schemes that result in different quality beams and we comment on the relative merits of each. Finally,
we quantify the increases in mapping speed that an array of our multichroic pixels might realize over traditional
We are developing antenna-coupled Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers to be used in the focal planes of
telescopes mapping Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization anisotropies. These detectors will be
both dual-polarized and ultra-wide band, each containing several frequency channels. Arrays of such detectors
could realize mapping speeds nearly an order of magnitude higher than previously deployed technology while
naturally facilitating foreground removal. For such detectors to be useful, the antennas must have a high gain
and a low cross-polarization. We have designed a novel modification of DuHamel's Sinuous antenna that couples
to a contacting lens and is driven by integrated microstrip feed-lines. The integrated feed lines allow the antenna
to interface with microstrip circuits and bolometers in a way that is planar and scalable to kilo-pixel arrays. We
have demonstrated the polarization and beam properties with scale model antennas that operate at 1-12 GHz.
We describe the development of an antenna-coupled bolometer array for use in a Cosmic Microwave Background polarization experiment. Prototype single pixels using double-slot dipole antennas and integrated microstrip band defining filters have been built and tested. Preliminary results of optical testing and simulations are presented. A bolometer array design based on this pixel will also be shown and future plans for application of the technology will be discussed.
We report on the development of arrays of Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers. We describe several architectures including planar-antenna-coupled, horn-coupled, and absorber-coupled devices. Antenna coupling can greatly simplify the fabrication of multi-frequency bolometer arrays compared to techniques in common use. Planar antennas are intrinsically polarization sensitive and are a promising technology for measurements of CMB polarization. We have designed a prototype device with a double-slot dipole antenna, integrated band-defining filters, and a membrane-suspended bolometer. A test chip has been constructed.
We are developing 300-1000 element arrays of horn-coupled TES bolometers with spider-web absorbers for galaxy cluster searches using the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. Finally, we describe a filled absorber-coupled array design that is built using a single silicon wafer. Such arrays are well suited for far-infrared and sub-millimeter observations such as those from SOFIA and future orbital missions.