MICADO will enable the ELT to perform diffraction limited near-infrared observations at first light. The instrument’s capabilities focus on imaging (including astrometric and high contrast) as well as single object spectroscopy. This contribution looks at how requirements from the observing modes have driven the instrument design and functionality. Using examples from specific science cases, and making use of the data simulation tool, an outline is presented of what we can expect the instrument to achieve.
MICADO will equip the ELT with a first light capability for diffraction limited imaging at near-infrared wave- lengths. The instrument’s observing modes focus on various flavours of imaging, including astrometric, high contrast, and time resolved. There is also a single object spectroscopic mode optimised for wavelength coverage at moderately high resolution.1 Due to ESO’s technology standards evolution from VLT to ELT, MICADO will manifest the combined, PLC based soft- and hardware control. The evolution of ESO’s technology design guidelines is on the one hand triggered by the ongoing developments in modern days industry and consumer tech- nology. On the other hand, ELT’s sheer dimensions request increasingly complex and smart solutions onwards controlling and monitoring such huge instruments. ESO’s control concept is based on a two layer approach: PLCs are responsible for low-level hardware control (in a real-time fashion, if necessary), while software running on a Linux workstation implements the astronomic business logic of the control system. Development is eased by the fact that ESO delivers libraries for the control of many standard hardware components. A very interesting feature of this approach is the possibility to run C++ code natively inside a PLC real-time environment. This will be used for the control of complex mechanisms like the MICADO Atmoshperic Dispersion Corrector (ADC).
This contribution provides an overview of the key functionality of the instrument focusing on the mechanisms inside the cryostat, and an overview of the cryogenic control. Because of hardware and cryogenic safety reasons, the cryostat control PLC system will be designed as a closed PLC based control system. Hence commands will only be accepted from a human machine interface located next to the cryostat itself. All cryostat parameters and according sensor readings will be published via OpcUA, allowing for full remote cryostat monitoring. In contrast, the instrument control PLC system will interact with the higher level software using the advantages of the industrial OpcUA communication standard and will therefore allow for remote control. Further configuration and commissioning of those mechanisms is made conveniently accessible via this approach. All this is based on ESO’s concept for Line replaceable Units (LRU), which utilizes Beckhoff PLC units to ensure maintainability, availability.
MICADO, the near-infrared Multi-AO Imaging Camera for Deep Observations and ELT first light instrument, requires an instrument-specific observation preparation tool whose main task is the optimal AO guide star selection in combination with a compliant offset/dither pattern definition. In addition to the usual sky viewer and control GUI, this tool shall also be scriptable through an embedded Python interpreter which helps to facilitate repetitive preparation tasks, allows for automatic evaluation of potential observation targets, and enables the user to replace particular built-in functionality. We present our prototype implementation and show how a hybrid interface improves the usability for the observer.
MICADO will equip the E-ELT with a first light capability for diffraction limited imaging at near-infrared wavelengths. The instrument’s observing modes focus on various flavours of imaging, including astrometric, high contrast, and time resolved. There is also a single object spectroscopic mode optimised for wavelength coverage at moderately high resolution. This contribution provides an overview of the key functionality of the instrument, outlining the scientific rationale for its observing modes. The interface between MICADO and the adaptive optics system MAORY that feeds it is summarised. The design of the instrument is discussed, focusing on the optics and mechanisms inside the cryostat, together with a brief overview of the other key sub-systems.
The Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München operates an astrophysical observatory on the summit of Mt. Wendelstein which was equipped with a modern 2m-class robotic telescope in 20111-3. One of the two Nasmyth ports is designed to deliver the excellent (< 0.8” median) seeing of the site for a FoV of 60 arcmin2 without any corrector optics at optical and near infrared (NIR) wavebands. This port hosts a three channel imager whose design was already presented in Lang-Bardl et al. 2010.4 It is designed to efficiently support observations of targets of opportunities like Gamma-Ray-bursts or efficient photometric
redshift determination of sources identified by surveys like PanSTARS, Planck (SZ) or eROSITA. The covered wavelength range is 340 nm to 2.3 microns. The camera provides standard broadband filters (Sloan, Y, J, H, Ks) and 5 narrowband filters (OI, Hα, SII, H2, Brλ). The narrowband filters will enable deep studies of star forming regions. We present the final design of the camera, the assembly and alignment procedure performed in the laboratory before we transported the instrument to the observatory. We also show first results of the achieved on sky performance concerning image quality and efficiency of the camera in the different filter passbands.
LMU Munchen operates an astrophysical observatory on Mt. Wendelstein1. The 2m Fraunhofer telescope2, 3 is equipped with a 0.5 x 0.5 square degree field-of-view wide field camera4 and a 3 channel optical/NIR camera5, 6. Two fiber coupled spectrographs7-9 and a wavefront sensor will be added in the near future. The observatory hosts a multitude of supporting hardware, i.e. allsky cameras, webcams, meteostation, air conditioning etc. All scientific hardware can be controlled through a single, central "Master Control Program" (MCP). At the last SPIE astronomy venue we presented the overall Wendelstein Observatory software concept10. Here we explain concept and implementation of the MCP as a multi-threaded Python daemon in the area of conflict between debuggability and Don't Repeat Yourself (DRY).
MICADO, the near-infrared Multi-AO Imaging Camera for Deep Observations and first light instrument for the European ELT, will provide capabilities for imaging, coronagraphy, and spectroscopy. As usual, MICADO observations will have to be prepared in advance, including AO and secondary guide star selection, offset/dither pattern definition, and an optimization for the most suitable configuration. A visual representation of the latter along with graphical and scripting interfaces is desirable. We aim at developing a flexible and user-friendly application that enhances or complements the ESO standard preparation software. Here, we give a summary of the requirements on such a tool, report on the status of our conceptual study and present a first proof-of-concept implementation.
MOONS is a new Multi-Object Optical and Near-infrared Spectrograph selected by ESO as a third generation
instrument for the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The grasp of the large collecting area offered by the VLT (8.2m
diameter), combined with the large multiplex and wavelength coverage (optical to near-IR: 0.8μm - 1.8μm) of MOONS
will provide the European astronomical community with a powerful, unique instrument able to pioneer a wide range of
Galactic, Extragalactic and Cosmological studies and provide crucial follow-up for major facilities such as Gaia,
VISTA, Euclid and LSST. MOONS has the observational power needed to unveil galaxy formation and evolution over
the entire history of the Universe, from stars in our Milky Way, through the redshift desert, and up to the epoch of very
first galaxies and re-ionization of the Universe at redshift z>8-9, just few million years after the Big Bang. On a
timescale of 5 years of observations, MOONS will provide high quality spectra for >3M stars in our Galaxy and the
local group, and for 1-2M galaxies at z>1 (SDSS-like survey), promising to revolutionise our understanding of the
The baseline design consists of ~1000 fibers deployable over a field of view of ~500 square arcmin, the largest patrol
field offered by the Nasmyth focus at the VLT. The total wavelength coverage is 0.8μm-1.8μm and two resolution
modes: medium resolution and high resolution. In the medium resolution mode (R~4,000-6,000) the entire wavelength
range 0.8μm-1.8μm is observed simultaneously, while the high resolution mode covers simultaneously three selected
spectral regions: one around the CaII triplet (at R~8,000) to measure radial velocities, and two regions at R~20,000 one
in the J-band and one in the H-band, for detailed measurements of chemical abundances.
KMOS is a multi-object near-infrared integral field spectrograph built by a consortium of UK and German institutes for
the ESO Paranal Observatory. We report on the on-sky performance verification of KMOS measured during three
commissioning runs on the ESO VLT in 2012/13 and some of the early science results.
MOONS is a new conceptual design for a Multi-Object Optical and Near-infrared Spectrograph for the Very Large
Telescope (VLT), selected by ESO for a Phase A study. The baseline design consists of ~1000 fibers deployable over a
field of view of ~500 square arcmin, the largest patrol field offered by the Nasmyth focus at the VLT. The total
wavelength coverage is 0.8μm-1.8μm and two resolution modes: medium resolution and high resolution. In the medium
resolution mode (R~4,000-6,000) the entire wavelength range 0.8μm-1.8μm is observed simultaneously, while the high
resolution mode covers simultaneously three selected spectral regions: one around the CaII triplet (at R~8,000) to
measure radial velocities, and two regions at R~20,000 one in the J-band and one in the H-band, for detailed
measurements of chemical abundances.
The grasp of the 8.2m Very Large Telescope (VLT) combined with the large multiplex and wavelength coverage of
MOONS – extending into the near-IR – will provide the observational power necessary to study galaxy formation and
evolution over the entire history of the Universe, from our Milky Way, through the redshift desert and up to the epoch
of re-ionization at z<8-9. At the same time, the high spectral resolution mode will allow astronomers to study chemical
abundances of stars in our Galaxy, in particular in the highly obscured regions of the Bulge, and provide the necessary
follow-up of the Gaia mission. Such characteristics and versatility make MOONS the long-awaited workhorse near-IR
MOS for the VLT, which will perfectly complement optical spectroscopy performed by FLAMES and VIMOS.
KMOS is a multi-object near-infrared integral field spectrograph being built by a consortium of UK and German
institutes. We report on the final integration and test phases of KMOS, and its performance verification, prior to
commissioning on the ESO VLT later this year.
KMOS is a near-infrared multi-object spectrometer, which is currently being built by a British-German consortium
for the ESO VLT. As for any other VLT instrument, the KMOS instrument software is based on the
application framework given by the VLT Common Software, but faces particular design challenges in addition.
As separate parts of the software require a similar functionality with respect to mechanical and optical permissibility
checks, user interface, and configuration control, a number of tasks have to be implemented twice and
slightly differently. It turns out that most of these issues can be tackled successfully by means of well-known
object-oriented design patterns, providing for reusability and improving the overall software design. We present
a set of sample problems along with their particular pattern solution.
MICADO is the adaptive optics imaging camera for the E-ELT. It has been designed and optimised to be mounted
to the LGS-MCAO system MAORY, and will provide diffraction limited imaging over a wide (~1 arcmin) field
of view. For initial operations, it can also be used with its own simpler AO module that provides on-axis
diffraction limited performance using natural guide stars. We discuss the instrument's key capabilities and
expected performance, and show how the science drivers have shaped its design. We outline the technical
concept, from the opto-mechanical design to operations and data processing. We describe the AO module,
summarise the instrument performance, and indicate some possible future developments.
KMOS is a near-infrared multi-object integral-field spectrometer which is one of a suite of second-generation
instruments under construction for the VLT. The instrument is being built by a consortium of UK and German
institutes working in partnership with ESO and is now in the manufacture, integration and test phase. In this paper
we present an overview of recent progress with the design and build of KMOS and present the first results from the
subsystem test and integration.
KMOS is a multi-object integral field spectrometer working in the near infrared which is currently being built
for the ESO VLT by a consortium of UK and German institutes. It is capable of selecting up to 24 target
fields for integral field spectroscopy simultaneously by means of 24 robotic pick-off arms. For the preparation
of observations with KMOS a dedicated preparation tool KARMA ("KMOS Arm Allocator") will be provided
which optimizes the assignment of targets to these arms automatically, thereby taking target priorities and several
mechanical and optical constraints into account. For this purpose two efficient algorithms, both being able to
cope with the underlying optimization problem in a different way, were developed. We present the concept and
architecture of KARMA in general and the optimization algorithms in detail.
KMOS is a near-infrared multi-object integral field spectrometer which has been selected as one of a suite of second-generation instruments to be constructed for the ESO VLT in Chile. The instrument will be built by a consortium of UK and German institutes working in partnership with ESO and is currently at the end of its preliminary design phase. We present the design status of KMOS and discuss the most novel technical aspects and the compliance with the technical specification.