Purpose: We describe a shape-aware multisurface simplex deformable model for the segmentation of healthy as well as pathological lumbar spine in medical image data.
Approach: This model provides an accurate and robust segmentation scheme for the identification of intervertebral disc pathologies to enable the minimally supervised planning and patient-specific simulation of spine surgery, in a manner that combines multisurface and shape statistics-based variants of the deformable simplex model. Statistical shape variation within the dataset has been captured by application of principal component analysis and incorporated during the segmentation process to refine results. In the case where shape statistics hinder detection of the pathological region, user assistance is allowed to disable the prior shape influence during deformation.
Results: Results demonstrate validation against user-assisted expert segmentation, showing excellent boundary agreement and prevention of spatial overlap between neighboring surfaces. This section also plots the characteristics of the statistical shape model, such as compactness, generalizability and specificity, as a function of the number of modes used to represent the family of shapes. Final results demonstrate a proof-of-concept deformation application based on the open-source surgery simulation Simulation Open Framework Architecture toolkit.
Conclusions: To summarize, we present a deformable multisurface model that embeds a shape statistics force, with applications to surgery planning and simulation.
This paper presents a methodology for the digital formatting of a printed atlas of the brainstem and the delineation of cranial nerves from this digital atlas. It also describes on-going work on the 3D resampling and refinement of the 2D functional regions and nerve contours. In MRI-based anatomical modeling for neurosurgery planning and simulation, the complexity of the functional anatomy entails a digital atlas approach, rather than less descriptive voxel or surface-based approaches. However, there is an insufficiency of descriptive digital atlases, in particular of the brainstem. Our approach proceeds from a series of numbered, contour-based sketches coinciding with slices of the brainstem featuring both closed and open contours. The closed contours coincide with functionally relevant regions, whereby our objective is to fill in each corresponding label, which is analogous to painting numbered regions in a paint-by-numbers kit. Any open contour typically coincides with a cranial nerve. This 2D phase is needed in order to produce densely labeled regions that can be stacked to produce 3D regions, as well as identifying the embedded paths and outer attachment points of cranial nerves. Cranial nerves are modeled using an explicit contour based technique called 1-Simplex. The relevance of cranial nerves modeling of this project is two-fold: i) this atlas will fill a void left by the brain segmentation communities, as no suitable digital atlas of the brainstem exists, and ii) this atlas is necessary to make explicit the attachment points of major nerves (except I and II) having a cranial origin. Keywords: digital atlas, contour models, surface models