In this paper we will discuss recent results in our work on Silicon Photonics. This will include active and passive devices for a range of applications. Specifically we will include work on modulators and drivers, deposited waveguides, multiplexers, device integration and Mid IR silicon photonics. These devices and technologies are important both for established applications such as integrated transceivers for short reach interconnect, as well as emerging applications such as disposable sensors and mass market photonics.
In this work we present results from high performance silicon optical modulators produced within the two largest silicon
photonics projects in Europe; UK Silicon Photonics (UKSP) and HELIOS. Two conventional MZI based optical
modulators featuring novel self-aligned fabrication processes are presented. The first is based in 400nm overlayer SOI
and demonstrates 40Gbit/s modulation with the same extinction ratio for both TE and TM polarisations, which relaxes
coupling requirements to the device. The second design is based in 220nm SOI and demonstrates 40Gbits/s modulation
with a 10dB extinction ratio as well modulation at 50Gbit/s for the first time. A ring resonator based optical modulator,
featuring FIB error correction is presented. 40Gbit/s, 32fJ/bit operation is also shown from this device which has a 6um
radius. Further to this slow light enhancement of the modulation effect is demonstrated through the use of both
convention photonic crystal structures and corrugated waveguides. Fabricated conventional photonic crystal modulators
have shown an enhancement factor of 8 over the fast light case. The corrugated waveguide device shows modulation
efficiency down to 0.45V.cm compared to 2.2V.cm in the fast light case. 40Gbit/s modulation is demonstrated with a
3dB modulation depth from this device. Novel photonic crystal based cavity modulators are also demonstrated which
offer the potential for low fibre to fibre loss. In this case preliminary modulation results at 1Gbit/s are demonstrated.
Ge/SiGe Stark effect devices operating at 1300nm are presented. Finally an integrated transmitter featuring a III-V
source and MZI modulator operating at 10Gbit/s is presented.
The mid-infrared spectral region is interesting for bio-chemical sensing, environmental monitoring,
free space communications, or military applications. Silicon is relatively low-loss from 1.2 to 8 μm and from
24 to 100 μm, and therefore silicon photonic circuits can be used in mid- and far- infrared wavelength ranges.
In this paper we investigate several silicon based waveguide structures for mid-infrared wavelength region.