The Sloan Digital Sky Survey V (SDSS-V) is an all-sky spectroscopic survey of >6 million objects, designed to decode the history of the Milky Way, reveal the inner workings of stars, investigate the origin of solar systems, and track the growth of supermassive black holes across the Universe. The Local Volume Mapper (LVM) is a facility designed to provide a contiguous 2500 deg2 integral-field survey over a 3.5 year period from Las Campanas Observatory (LCO) in Chile. The facility comprises four small (16 cm) telescopes that deliver science, calibration, and spectro-photometric light to three bench-mounted multi-object spectrographs, designed and build by Winlight Systems. All four telescopes will be equipped with a microlens array integral-field unit (IFU) to slice the focal plane into 35–arcsec large spatial elements while maintaining near-telecentric coupling at the fiber input. The science IFU comprises 1801 fibers, additional 143 fibers are allocated for sky-background and spectro-photometric calibration, totaling 1944 fibers. Each spectrograph will be fed by 648 fibers, which are reformatted into a linear array, forming the entrance slit. In this paper, we present the opto-mechanical design of the LVM-LCO fiber cable system.
The Sloan Digital Sky Survey V (SDSS-V) is an all-sky spectroscopic survey of <6 million objects, designed to decode the history of the Milky Way, reveal the inner workings of stars, investigate the origin of solar systems, and track the growth of supermassive black holes across the Universe. The Local Volume Mapper (LVM) is one of three surveys that form SDSS-V. LVM will employ a coordinated system of four telescopes feeding three fiber spectrographs at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. The goal is to map approximately 2500 square degrees of the Galactic plane over the wavelength range 360-980 nm with R~4000 spectral resolution. These observations will reveal for the first time how distinct gaseous environments within the Galaxy interact with each other and with the stellar population, producing the large-scale interstellar medium that we observe. Accurately mapping and calibrating a substantial portion of the sky at this spatial resolution requires a unique type of telescope system. Each of the four LVM telescopes has a diameter of 16 cm, making them considerably smaller and lighter than the instruments they feed. One telescope will host the science IFU containing ~1800 fibers arranged in a close-packed hexagon. Two additional Calibration telescopes will observe fields adjacent to the science IFU, in order to calibrate out terrestrial airglow and other geo-coronal emission. The fourth, Spectrophotometric telescope will make rapid observations of bright stars (typically 12 during a single IFU / Calibration exposure) to correct for telluric absorption lines and overall extinction. The fibers from all three types of telescope will be interspersed in the entrance slits of the spectrographs, allowing for simultaneous science and calibration exposures. Although considerably smaller than the next generation of giants, the LVM telescopes must also operate close to the limits of physical optics, and the geometry and scope of the LVM survey present unique challenges. For example, with this type of telescope at the Las Campanas site, the effects of optical aberrations, diffraction, seeing, and (uncorrected) atmospheric dispersion are all of comparable scale. This, coupled with the need for repeated and reliable measurements over years, leads to some unconventional design choices. This paper presents the preliminary design of the LVM telescope system and discusses the requirements and tradeoffs that led to the baseline choices.
The Sloan Digital Sky Survey V (SDSS-V) is an all-sky spectroscopic survey of <6 million objects, designed to decode the history of the Milky Way, reveal the inner workings of stars, investigate the origin of solar systems, and track the growth of supermassive black holes across the Universe. The Local Volume Mapper (LVM) is a facility designed to provide a contiguous 2,500 deg2 integral-field survey over a 3.5 year period from Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. In this paper we provide an overview and status update for the LVM instrument (hereafter LVM-I). Each integral-field unit’s spaxel probes linear scales that are sub-parsec (Milky Way) to ∼10 pc (Magellanic Clouds) which is accomplished with an angular diameter of 36.900. LVM’s spectral resolution is R = λ/∆λ ∼ 4, 000 which probes velocities of 33 kms−1 (1 σ) from 365 nm to 950 nm. LVM uses four 16-cm telescopes feeding three spectrographs. One telescope carries the bulk of the science load with ∼1,800 fibers coupled to the field via a pair of lenslet arrays, two telescopes are used to measure the night sky spectra in fields that flank the science field, and a fourth telescope contemporaneously monitors bright standard stars to determine atmospheric extinction. We expect LVM-I to deliver percent-level precision on important line ratios down to a few Rayleigh. The three spectrographs are being built by Winlight corporation in France based on those for the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI). In this paper we present the high-level system design of LVM-I including the lenslet-coupled fiber IFUs, telescopes, guiding+acquisition system, calibration systems, enclosures, and spectrographs.
The Magellan Infrared Multi-object Spectrograph (MIRMOS) is a near-infrared (NIR) multi-object spectrograph (MOS) and integral field unit (IFU) to be deployed at the Magellan 6.5-meter telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory. MIRMOS is designed to address frontier scientific questions in extragalactic, cosmological, and exoplanetary science. These scientific questions led us to spectrograph with an instantaneous wavelength range from 0.89-2.4 µm with a spectral resolution < 3, 700. The spectrograph is fed by a front end that switches between a robotic mechanical slit mask capable of deploying nearly 90 slits over a 13' x 3' field, or by an image slicer IFU with a wide field of 26" × 20". MIRMOS is currently under design at the Carnegie Observatories.
This paper describes the as-built performance of MOSFIRE, the multi-object spectrometer and imager for the Cassegrain
focus of the 10-m Keck 1 telescope. MOSFIRE provides near-infrared (0.97 to 2.41 μm) multi-object spectroscopy over
a 6.1' x 6.1' field of view with a resolving power of R~3,500 for a 0.7" (0.508 mm) slit (2.9 pixels in the dispersion
direction), or imaging over a field of view of ~6.9' diameter with ~0.18" per pixel sampling. A single diffraction grating
can be set at two fixed angles, and order-sorting filters provide spectra that cover the K, H, J or Y bands by selecting 3rd,
4th, 5th or 6th order respectively. A folding flat following the field lens is equipped with piezo transducers to provide
tip/tilt control for flexure compensation at the <0.1 pixel level. Instead of fabricated focal plane masks requiring frequent
cryo-cycling of the instrument, MOSFIRE is equipped with a cryogenic Configurable Slit Unit (CSU) developed in
collaboration with the Swiss Center for Electronics and Microtechnology (CSEM). Under remote control the CSU can
form masks containing up to 46 slits with ~0.007-0.014" precision. Reconfiguration time is < 6 minutes. Slits are formed
by moving opposable bars from both sides of the focal plane. An individual slit has a length of 7.0" but bar positions can
be aligned to make longer slits in increments of 7.5". When masking bars are retracted from the field of view and the
grating is changed to a mirror, MOSFIRE becomes a wide-field imager. The detector is a 2K x 2K H2-RG HgCdTe
array from Teledyne Imaging Sensors with low dark current and low noise. Results from integration and commissioning
The Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) Machine is an Integral Field Unit (IFU) spectrograph designed specifically to classify transients. It is comprised of two subsystems. A lenselet based IFU, with a 26" × 26" Field of View (FoV) and ∼ 0.75" spaxels feeds a constant resolution (R∼100) triple-prism. The dispersed rays are than imaged onto an off-the-shelf CCD detector. The second subsystem, the Rainbow Camera (RC), is a 4-band seeing-limited imager with a 12.5' × 12.5' FoV around the IFU that will allow real time spectrophotometric calibrations with a ∼ 5% accuracy. Data from both subsystems will be processed in real time using a dedicated reduction pipeline. The SED Machine will be mounted on the Palomar 60-inch robotic telescope (P60), covers a wavelength range of 370 − 920nm at high throughput and will classify transients from on-going and future surveys at a high rate. This will provide good statistics for common types of transients, and a better ability to discover and study rare and exotic ones. We present the science cases, optical design, and data reduction strategy of the SED Machine. The SED machine is currently being constructed at the Calofornia Institute of Technology, and will be comissioned on the spring of 2013.
MOSFIRE is a unique multi-object spectrometer and imager for the Cassegrain focus of the 10 m Keck 1 telescope. A
refractive optical design provides near-IR (0.97 to 2.45 μm) multi-object spectroscopy over a 6.14' x 6.14' field of view
with a resolving power of R~3,270 for a 0.7" slit width (2.9 pixels in the dispersion direction), or imaging over a field of
view of 6.8' diameter with 0.18" per pixel sampling. A single diffraction grating can be set at two fixed angles, and
order-sorting filters provide spectra that cover the K, H, J or Y bands by selecting 3rd, 4th, 5th or 6th order respectively. A
folding flat following the field lens is equipped with piezo transducers to provide tip/tilt control for flexure compensation
at the 0.1 pixel level. A special feature of MOSFIRE is that its multiplex advantage of up to 46 slits is achieved using a
cryogenic Configurable Slit Unit or CSU developed in collaboration with the Swiss Centre for Electronics and Micro
Technology (CSEM). The CSU is reconfigurable under remote control in less than 5 minutes without any thermal
cycling of the instrument. Slits are formed by moving opposable bars from both sides of the focal plane. An individual
slit has a length of 7.1" but bar positions can be aligned to make longer slits. When masking bars are removed to their
full extent and the grating is changed to a mirror, MOSFIRE becomes a wide-field imager. Using a single, ASIC-driven,
2K x 2K H2-RG HgCdTe array from Teledyne Imaging Sensors with exceptionally low dark current and low noise,
MOSFIRE will be extremely sensitive and ideal for a wide range of science applications. This paper describes the design
and testing of the instrument prior to delivery later in 2010.
In traditional seeing-limited observations the spectrograph aperture scales with telescope aperture, driving sizes
and costs to enormous proportions. We propose a new solution to the seeing-limited spectrograph problem. A
massively fiber-sliced congfiguration feeds a set of small diffraction-limited spectrographs. We present a prototype,
tunable, J-band, diffraction grating, designed specifically for Astronomical applications: The grating sits at the
heart of a spectrograph, no bigger than a few inches on a side. Throughput requirements dictate using tens-of-thousands
of spectrographs on a single 10 to 30 meter telescope. A full system would cost significantly less than
typical instruments on 10m or 30m telescopes.