People with visual disability unable to recognize the nominal of banknotes in conducting economic life, hence, rely on their touch and hear senses to recognize the banknotes. In this work, we investigated the LDR sensor to detect the nominal value of banknotes with voice output. It was found that the error rate 100% for IDR 2000, IDR 10000, IDR 100000, and IDR 50000, 75% error rate was for IDR 5000 and IDR 2000, and 50% error rate for IDR 1000.
Tomatoes that are being distributed to the market require certain level of maturity. Determination of maturity requires classification. Automatic tomato classification is the process of sorting tomatoes into different classes using machine vision and image processing. Tomatoes have two types of pigments used for photosynthesis. In the early stage of maturity, tomatoes are green color due to high chlorophyll level. As the tomatoes mature, chlorophyll will dissolve and begin to disappear. The loss of chlorophyll, the lycopene that has a red color will be clearly visible on the tomatoes. The color system used is RGB, then threshold, color analysis, and the final step is the perception of color. It can be concluded that image processing can be used to determine the selection of tomato maturity based on the color. Variables that can be used to determine the maturity level of tomatoes is the ration of the RGB value obtained by the image.
A Single-mode multimode single-mode (SMS) fiber structure coated with MWCNTs is proposed and demonstrated for the detection of magnesium ion. The SMS fiber has a length of 30 mm multimode fiber and was fabricated by connecting two optical fiber single-mode and multimode fiber. As the magnesium concentration increases from 0% to 5%, the output power of the SMS fiber structure decreases linearly with sensitivity and resolution of 3.0261 dBm/% and 0.0379 % respectively, for the SMS fiber structure coating with MWCNTs. MWCNTs as magnesium ion sensors will change the refractive index of fiber as the magnesium ion concentration changes due to the optical properties of adsorption. Hence, the SMS fiber structure coating with MWCNTs is more sensitive than the one without coating for magnesium concentration detection.
Electric current measurement has become an important aspect in electric current quality monitoring. In the development of electric technologies, electrical system needs new current measurement technology with high sensitivity and resolution. In this study, an optical fiber current sensor has been developed using SMS fiber structure and ferrofluid for an alternating current measurement. This optical fiber current sensor works with the change of refractive index of ferrofluid. Ferrofluid is colloidal suspension that is made from Fe3O4 nanoparticle and surfactant (oleic acid, citric acid, etc). The refractive index of ferrofluid will change due to the magnetic field that affects ferrofluid. The experiment was done by measuring the change of output power of optical fiber current sensor using Optical Power Meter due to current flow in the wire. The alternating current range used in this study is 0-10A. The results show that the SMS fiber current sensor has a sensitivity of 3.049dB/A in the range 2-7A, 95% of precision rate and a resolution of 0.037A.
We demonstrate the singlemode-multimode-singlemode (SMS) fiber structure for formalin detection. Formalin is a formaldehyde compound in water with an average concentration of 37 % and 15 % of methanol and water. Formalin consists of two substances; formaldehyde and water. Formaldehyde contamination in foods causes a negative effect for body. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies formaldehyde into Group 1 (carcinogenic to humans). Detection contamination of formalin in foods is very important. In this work, SMS fiber structure was used for formalin detection due to easy fabrication, cheap and more accurate in readings. This experiment utilized a difference in refractive index that affects the power output from optical fiber.
Curcumin stability is strongly influenced by temperature because if storage is not done properly then its bioavability will be low in the body, in fact the storage of curcumin does not always correspond to storage advice due to lack of temperature control. This study was conducted to determine the effect of Curcuma Plus Immuns storage temperature containing curcumin by spectrophotometry method. The samples of Curcuma Plus Imuns were stored in three different conditions: cold temperature (4 °C), room temperature (27 °C), and hot temperature (48 °C), then the sample was dissolved in 96% ethanol, and checked its power intensity using optical power meter Thorlabs. The result of characterization of curcumin optical properties in the sample of Curcuma Plus Imuns shows that curcumin has the highest absorbance value at 410 nm wavelength. Storage of Curcuma Plus Immunes in cold and hot temperatures can cause the concentration of curcumin to decrease, so storage at room temperature is the best storage temperature.
In this work, we investigated the effect of temperature and viscosity changes on the quality of cooking oil based on Ushaped SMS fiber structure. Quality of cooking oil has always been a topic of interest among researchers because the quality of cooking oil is related to human health. In this work, the cooking oil was heated with varied temperature from 30°C, 50°C, 100°C, 150°C, 200°C, and 250°C and the viscosity of cooking oil was measured using an Oswald Viscometer. It is found that, the data losses obtained are from -14.3, -14.29, -14,27, -14.21, -14.15, and -14.07 dB. The highest viscosity of the cooking oil significantly increases the losses of output power. The refractive index change of the viscosity of the cooking oil causes a change in the output power of the sensor. In conclusion, an U-shaped SMS fiber for the measuring of the cooking oil viscosity is simple, low cost, and excellent repeatability detection was successfully achieved in this study.
Water turbidity testing is needed in the process of water treatment for water to be consumed. Therefore, an effort is needed to develop a tool that serves as a detector of turbidity of water, in order to set a standard parameters of water clarity that can be consumed by the community. In this research, the physics parameters related to water consumption, ie turbidity or turbidity are discussed. Turbidity describes the optical properties of water determined by the amount of light scattered by the materials present in the water. The direction of the transmitted light path will change when light touches the particles in the water column. The particle size affects the value of turbidity, where in the testmilk powder and coffee are suspended matter that causes water turbidity. The particle size of milk powder is smaller than coffee, therefore, the light is more scattered in milk solution than with turbidity value about 3.01 NTU while coffee 2.67 NTU at 5 gr / l solution.