The traditional method for electron lifetime measurements of CdZnTe (CZT) detectors relies on using the Hecht equation. The procedure involves measuring the dependence of the detector response on the applied bias and applying the Hecht equation to evaluate the mu-tau product, which in turn can be converted into the carrier lifetime if the mobility is known. Despite general acceptance of this technique, which is very convenient for comparative testing of different CZT materials, the assumption of a constant electric field inside a detector is unjustified. In the Hecht equation, this assumption means that the drift time would be a linear function of the drift distance. This condition is rarely fulfilled in practice at low applied biases where the Hecht equation is most sensitive to the mu-tau product. As a result, researchers usually take measurements at relatively high biases, which work well in the case of the low mu-tau material, <10-3 cm2/V, but give significantly underestimated values for the case of high mu-tau crystals. In this work, we applied the time-of-flight (TOF) technique to measure the electron lifetimes in long-drift-length (3 cm) standard-grade CZT detectors produced by Redlen Technologies. The TOF-based techniques are traditionally used for monitoring the electronegative impurity concentrations in noble gas detectors by measuring the electron lifetimes. We found the electron mu-tau product of tested crystals is in the range 0.1-0.2 cm2/V, which is an order of the magnitude higher than any value previously reported for CZT material. In this work, we reported the measurement procedure and the results. We will also discuss the applicability criteria of the Hecht equation for measuring the electron lifetime in high mu-tau product CZT.
Flexible radiation dosimeters have been produced incorporating thick films (>1 μm) of the semiconducting polymer
poly([9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl]-co-bithiophene). Diode structures produced on aluminium-metallised poly(imide)
substrates, and with gold top contacts, have been examined with respect to their electrical properties. The results suggest
that a Schottky conduction mechanism occurs in the reverse biased diode, with a barrier to charge injection at the
aluminium electrode. Optical absorption/emission spectra reveal a band gap of 2.48 eV for the polymer. The diodes have
been used for direct charge detection of 17 keV X-rays, generated by a molybdenum source. Using operating voltages of
-10 and -50 V respectively, sensitivities of 54 and 158 nC/mGy/cm3 have been achieved. Increasing the operating
voltage shows that the diodes are stable up to approximately -200 V without significant increase in the dark current of
the device (<0.2 nA).
We describe the mode of operation of a detector for direct photon-electron conversion at room temperature, made of epitaxially grown GaAs. Contrary to bulk grown materials, epitaxial layers are free of defects, i.e. exhibit long lifetimes and high carrier mobilities, and have uniform electronic properties. However, the depleted zone is of limited extension, consequence of the level of the residual doping impurities, which are not compensated by defects. These detectors are adapted to X-ray imaging, in particular for low energy medical applications such as mammography, because of the availability of large areas (up to 4 inches in diameter), standard technological processes for making pixellated detectors and cost. However, charges in the neutral region can be collected by diffusion and we shall present data allowing to illustrate and evaluate this effect. Finally photocurrent measurements obtained under medical conditions demonstrate that, for the detector used, only a small fraction of the photocurrent originates from diffusing charges. They also show how a 120 μm thick GaAs epitaxial detector competes with a 0.5 mm thick CdZnTe detector.
We have fabricated a new experimental pixel array using 2mm-thick CdZnTe. The trial arrays have been bump-bonded to the Rockwell PICNIC readout IC which provides low noise read out of pixel signals. First measurements are presented from the detector characterisation, which in particular, demonstrate that a very high bond yield (>99%) was
achieved. It is envisaged that these detectors will be suitable for future X-ray astronomy and planetary missions as well as ground based applications such as non-destructive testing, threat detection and baggage scanning.
To facilitate the design and characterization of scintillation detectors we are implementing a new Monte Carlo code. The code handles the transport of optical photons through plastic scintillators, and is being written to ensure accurate interaction of photons at surfaces and to allow an analysis of photon arrival times at the detector entrance window. The code is being written in C++ with the long term view of forming an extension to the EGS4/51 code system. This paper will discuss the implementation of the code, outlining the means by which geometry is specified and how photon interactions have been modelled.
Conference Committee Involvement (5)
Hard X-Ray, Gamma-Ray, and Neutron Detector Physics XV
26 August 2013 | San Diego, California, United States
Hard X-Ray, Gamma-Ray, and Neutron Detector Physics XIV
13 August 2012 | San Diego, California, United States
Hard X-Ray, Gamma-Ray, and Neutron Detector Physics XIII
22 August 2011 | San Diego, California, United States
Hard X-Ray, Gamma-Ray, and Neutron Detector Physics XII
2 August 2010 | San Diego, California, United States
Hard X-Ray, Gamma-Ray, and Neutron Detector Physics XI
3 August 2009 | San Diego, California, United States