Multiple ASML NXE:3400C scanners are installed at customer factories and being used in high volume manufacturing (HVM) of leading semiconductor devices. The latest generation of NXE:3400C sources has improved performance and availability by implementing a modular vessel concept and an automated tin supply system.
In this paper, we provide an overview of 13.5 nm tin laser-produced-plasma (LPP) extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) sources enabling HVM at the N5 node and beyond. The field performance of sources operating at 250 watts power including the performance of subsystems such as the Collector and the Droplet Generator will be shown. Progress in the development of key technologies for power scaling towards 420W will be described.
A novel method of modeling Sn (tin) scattering through H2 (molecular hydrogen) is examined. Density-functional theory (DFT) software from the Amsterdam Modeling Suite was used to determine the interaction energy of Sn and H2 at varying spacing and orientations. This data was used to generate a function that describes the average interaction energy with respect to distance between the two species for neutral Sn as well as selected Sn ionized states.
These resulting functions were inserted into RustBCA, a binary collision approximation code for ion-material interactions. The scattering of a Sn beam through H2 was modeled for each newly generated potential, along with well-known potentials such as ZBL and Moliere for comparison.
Legacy software, such as TRIM, is not capable of modeling scattering using potentials that contain attractive components. The potentials generated with DFT have attractive components, so this analysis is only possible now using RustBCA. This method can give more accurate results than previous work.
A model using the ZBL potential wherein a neutral Sn beam of 10 keV scattered through 15 cm of H2 left 87.8% of the Sn atoms within 41.4 millisteradians of the primary axis and an average energy of 816.3 eV ± 8.71 eV. The same model with a DFT-generated potential gives a much narrower particle distribution with higher average energies.
This modeling work will also be compared against ongoing experimental measurements of Sn ions through H2 for further comparison.
Over 50 EUV scanners are installed at customer factories and being used in high volume manufacturing (HVM) of leading semiconductor devices. The latest generation of EUV sources are operating at 250W while meeting all other requirements. Future EUV scanners are projected to require more stable EUV and higher powers >600W to meet throughput requirements.
In this paper, we provide an overview of a the latest advances in the laboratory for tin laser-produced-plasma (LPP) extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) sources at 13.5nm enabling HVM at the N5 node and beyond, highlighting crucial EUV source technology developments needed to meet future requirements for EUV power and stability. This includes the performance of subsystems such as the Collector and the Droplet Generator.
In this paper, we provide an overview of state-of-the-art technologies for incoherent laser-produced tin plasma extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) sources at 13.5nm with performance enabling high volume semiconductor manufacturing (HVM). The key elements to development of a stable and reliable source that also meet HVM throughput requirements and the technical challenges for further scaling EUV power to increase productivity are described. Improvements in availability of droplet generation and the performance of critical subsystems that contribute to EUV collection optics lifetime toward the one tera-pulse level, are shown. We describe current research activities and provide a perspective for EUV sources towards the future ASML Scanners.
Semiconductor cascade lasers have larger photon noise than conventional single stage semiconductor lasers as a result of positive correlations in photon emission in different gain stages which are connected electrically in series. The photon noise of
cascade lasers can be related to the photon noise of single stage lasers with scaled external circuit impedances. This scaling relation for the photon noise holds for bipolar as well as unipolar cascade lasers.
This paper explores the development of cascade semiconductor lasers for communications applications. Both interband and intersubband cascade emission devices are examined theoretically and experimentally. The motivation for cascade sources in both high fidelity and high bandwidth applications is presented. The ability to transmit signals with lower signal loss and improved noise performance is verified by measurements on a model systems consisting of series coupled DFB lasers.