Optical metasurfaces, planar sub-wavelength nano-antenna arrays with the singular ability to sculpt wave front in almost arbitrary manners, are poised to become a powerful tool enabling compact and high-performance optics with novel functionalities. A particularly intriguing research direction within this field is active metasurfaces, whose optical response can be dynamically tuned post-fabrication, thus allowing a plurality of applications unattainable with traditional bulk optics. The efforts to date, however, still face major performance limitations in tuning range, optical quality, and efficiency especially for non-mechanical actuation mechanisms. In this paper, we introduce an active metasurface platform combining phase tuning covering the full 2π range and diffraction-limited performance using an all-dielectric, low-loss architecture based on optical phase change materials (O-PCMs). We present a generic design principle enabling binary switching of metasurfaces between arbitrary phase profiles. We implement the approach to realize a high-performance varifocal metalens. The metalens is constructed using Ge2Sb2Se4Te1 (GSST), an O-PCM with a large refractive index contrast and unique broadband low-loss characteristics in both amorphous and crystalline states. The reconfigurable metalens features focusing efficiencies above 20% at both states for linearly polarized light and a record large switching contrast ratio (CR) close to 30 dB. We further validate aberration-free and multi-depth imaging using the metalens, which represents the first experimental demonstration of a non-mechanical active metalens with diffraction-limited performance.
The dramatic optical property change of optical phase change materials (O-PCMs) between their amorphous and crystalline states potentially allows the realization of reconfigurable photonic devices with enhanced optical functionalities and low power consumption, such as reconfigurable optical components, optical switches and routers, and photonic memories. Conventional O-PCMs exhibit considerable optical losses, limiting their optical performance as well as application space. In this talk, we present the development of a new group of O-PCMs and their implementations in novel meta-optic devices. Ge-Sb-Se-Te (GSST), obtained by partially substituting Te with Se in traditional GST alloys, feature unprecedented broadband optical transparency covering the telecommunication bands to the LWIR. A drastic refractive index change between the amorphous and crystalline states of GSST is realized and the transition is non-volatile and reversible.
Optical metasurfaces consist of optically-thin, subwavelength meta-atom arrays which allow arbitrary manipulation of the wavefront of light. Capitalizing on the dramatically-enhanced optical performance of GSST, transparent and ultra-thin reconfigurable meta-optics in mid-infrared are demonstrated. In one example, GSST-based all-dielectric nano-antennae are used as the fundamental building blocks for meta-optic components. Tunable and switchable metasurface devices are developed, taking advantage of the materials phase changing properties.
We review the potential and limitations of a temperature-dependent Raman Scattering Technique (RST) as a nondestructive optical tool to investigate the thermal properties of bulk Chalcogenide Glasses (ChGs). Conventional thermal conductivity measurement techniques employed for bulk materials cannot be readily extended to thin films created from the parent bulk. This work summarizes the state of the art, and discusses the possibility to measure more accurately the thermal conductivity of bulk ChGs with micrometer resolution using RST. Using this information, we aim to extend the method to measure the thermal conductivity on thin films. While RST has been employed to evaluate the thermal conductivity data of 2D materials such as graphene, molybdenum disulfide, carbon nanotubes and silicon, it has not been used to effectively duplicate data on ChGs which have been measured by traditional measurement tools. The present work identifies and summarizes the limitations of using RST to measure the thermal conductivity on ChGs. In this technique, the temperature of a laser spot was monitored using Raman Scattering Spectra, and efforts were made to measure the thermal conductivity of bulk AMTIR 1 (Ge33As12Se55) and Ge32.5As10Se57.5 ChGs by analyzing heat diffusion equations. To validate the approach, another conventional technique - Transient Plane Source (TPS) has been used for assessing the thermal conductivity of these bulk glasses. Extension to other more complicated materials (glass ceramics) where signatures from both the glassy matrix and crystallites, are discussed.
Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is widely recognized as a gold standard technique for chemical analysis. Traditional IR spectroscopy relies on fragile bench-top instruments located in dedicated laboratory settings, and is thus not suitable for emerging field-deployed applications such as in-line industrial process control, environmental monitoring, and point-ofcare diagnosis. Recent strides in photonic integration technologies provide a promising route towards enabling miniaturized, rugged platforms for IR spectroscopic analysis. Chalcogenide glasses, the amorphous compounds containing S, Se or Te, have stand out as a promising material for infrared photonic integration given their broadband infrared transparency and compatibility with silicon photonic integration. In this paper, we discuss our recent work exploring integrated chalcogenide glass based photonic devices for IR spectroscopic chemical analysis, including on-chip cavityenhanced chemical sensing and monolithic integration of mid-IR waveguides with photodetectors.