Since the publication of the Quantum Amplitude Estimation (QAE) algorithm by Brassard et al., 2002, several variations have been proposed, such as Aaronson et al., 2019, Grinko et al., 2019, and Suzuki et al., 2020. The main difference between the original and the variants is the exclusion of Quantum Phase Estimation (QPE) by the latter. This difference is notable given that QPE is the key component of original QAE, but is composed of many operations considered expensive for the current NISQ era devices. We compare two recently proposed variants (Grinko et al., 2019 and Suzuki et al., 2020) by implementing them on the IBM Quantum device using Qiskit, an open source framework for quantum computing. We analyze and discuss advantages of each algorithm from the point of view of their implementation and performance on a quantum computer.
This paper addresses the practical aspects of quantum algorithms used in numerical integration, specifically their implementation on Noisy Intermediate-Scale Quantum (NISQ) devices. Quantum algorithms for numerical integration utilize Quantum Amplitude Estimation (QAE) (Brassard et al., 2002) in conjunction with Grover’s algorithm. However, QAE is daunting to implement on NISQ devices since it typically relies on Quantum Phase Estimation (QPE), which requires many ancilla qubits and controlled operations. To mitigate these challenges, a recently published QAE algorithm (Suzuki et al., 2020), which does not rely on QPE, requires a much smaller number of controlled operations and does not require ancilla qubits. We implement this new algorithm for numerical integration on IBM quantum devices using Qiskit and optimize the circuit on each target device. We discuss the application of this algorithm on two qubits and its scalability to more than two qubits on NISQ devices.