Offner spectrometer is widely applied in hyperspectral imaging spectrometers, in which the design, fabrication, and testing of convex gratings are crucial to ensure the spectral and imaging performance of the whole system. A conical diffraction Offner spectrometer is proposed with the spectral range of 400 to 900 nm, spectral resolution of 5 nm, slit length of 1 mm, and spectral dispersive width of 10 mm. A finite-element analysis is adopted to optimize the groove parameters of the conical diffraction blazed convex grating that is used in the aforesaid spectrometer. Holographic scan ion beam etching method is employed to fabricate such convex grating. Experimental facilities for testing the diffraction efficiency are built in the lab, showing that the efficiency is higher than 50% in the whole waveband and the peak efficiency is over 75%, which is consistent with the design result. The result indicates that it is feasible to design and optimize the grating groove using the finite-element analysis method.
The increase of atmospheric concentration of anthropogenic greenhouse gases(GHGs), primarily carbon dioxide(CO2) and methane(CH4), is concerned as a main cause of the global climate change. From the previous experiences in GHG detecting, satellite imaging spectral remote sensing provides the unique potentials in accuracy, precision, coverage, temporal sampling and spectral resolution, having been developing as an effective and efficient means for monitoring GHGs’ accumulation and emission in the atmosphere. This paper reports a promising optical design of very high spectral resolution imaging spectrometer on LEO satellite with a swath of over 100 km and a spatial resolution of less than 3 km. Its specification satisfies with the requirement of high column concentration retrieval precision of 1ppm for CO2 and 9ppb for CH4 within four absorption bands (755-765nm, 1595-1625nm, 2040-2080nm and 2275-2325nm). Above all, up to 23000 spectral resolving power hints us the superiorities of immersed grating in increasing resolution but decreasing volume. A holographic flat plane grating is directly etched on a wedge prism, operating in reflective near-Littrow condition, having optimized diffraction efficiency of over 85%. Additional prisms are introduced to correct the smile distortion of the slit image produced by the grism. This method is crucial for the fidelity of the instrument spectral response function (ISRF) and data processing. Moreover, to desensitize the instrument to the polarization state of the income radiation, four polarization scramblers are adopted after the shared fore-optics, specially designed for each bands. Thanks to the scramblers, the predicted polarization sensitivity is lower than 1% at worst.
The grating imaging spectrometer has the characteristics of good linearity, wide dispersion range and is widely used in the field of remote sensing. Distortions (including smile and keystone) are one of the important parameters of the grating imaging spectrometer, which directly affects the quality of the image and spectral information obtained by the imaging spectrometer. In order to get the requirements of two kinds of distortions in the design process of the grating imaging spectrometer, the effect of the smile and keystone on the target detection is simulated and analyzed respectively. Based on the spectral response function with the Gaussian, the change of the spectral signal acquired by the grating imaging spectrometer with the amount of the different smile is calculated by combining with the spectral data of the atmospheric in the visible and near-infrared (0.4~1μm). The results show that the amount of smile should be no more than 1nm, 0.6nm and 0.2nm respectively when the spectral resolutions of the imaging spectrometer are 20nm, 10nm and 5nm. With the assumption that the spatial response function is the rectangle function, the effect of the different keystone on spectral signal acquisition of the imaging spectrometer is simulated by using the hyperspectral data. The results indicate that the offset of the keystone should be controlled within 0.04d (d is the pixel width).
In this paper, the generation mechanism of stray light is analyzed for a visible and near infrared imaging spectrometer with a spectral range of 400nm to 900nm. The optical mechanical model of the instrument was established and its stray light level was simulated. Based on the notch method, A stray light measuring device is built. The veiling glare index of the imaging spectrometer is measured to be 0.84%. The uncertainty of measurement is assessed by GUM method, and the influence of uncertainty components on the measurement results is analyzed. When the confidence probability of the measuring device is 95.45%, the measurement uncertainty of veiling glare index is 0.15%. Finally, a comparison and analysis are made between the simulated values of the veiling glare index and the actual measured values. This work provides technical support for the development of high resolution imaging spectrometer.
Astigmatism and distortion aberrations of conventional Offner-type imaging spectrometer with an in-plane diffraction grating will increase dramatically as its spectral dispersion width so that such spectroscopic mounting is usually suitable for such situation that both slit length and spectrum width are medium and that the spectrum width is less than the slit length. To short slit and high dispersion, novel conical diffraction Offner mounting is more appropriate. Based on the operation principle of this kind mounting, a set of optimized designs, which the focal ratio is 4，the spectral region from 400nm to 900nm, the slit length from 0.5mm to 1mm, and the dispersion width from 9.8mm to 28mm are obtained under the same optical size. To evaluate the imaging quality of the designed and to get the relation between slit length and dispersion width, the merit function and spectral response function are considered. The results show that conical diffraction Offner imaging spectrometers can image well while the spectrum width is less than the slit length, but no more than its 20 times.
As one kind of light source simulation devices, spectrally tunable light sources are able to generate specific spectral shape and radiant intensity outputs according to different application requirements, which have urgent demands in many fields of the national economy and the national defense industry. Compared with the LED-type spectrally tunable light source, the one based on a DMD-convex grating Offner configuration has advantages of high spectral resolution, strong digital controllability, high spectrum synthesis accuracy, etc. As a key link of the above type light source to achieve target spectrum outputs, spectrum synthesis algorithm based on spectrum matching is therefore very important. An improved spectrum synthesis algorithm based on linear least square initialization and Levenberg-Marquardt iterative optimization is proposed in this paper on the basis of in-depth study of the spectrum matching principle. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by a series of simulations and experimental works.
Owing to the ability of generating designated spectrums as special requirements, spectrum-controllable light source has attracted huge interesting in several fields, e.g. medical science, industrial detection, defense-related testing. In principle, optical performance of a spectrum-controllable light source can be predicted by some transfer functions of the corresponding system, e.g. modulation transfer function (MTF). Unfortunately, the aforementioned research work is still lacking at present although it is meaningful for the optical design and evaluation of this new kind of light sources. Hence, a MTF model for a modified version of our previously-proposed spectrum-controllable light source system based on a Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) and an Offner dispersion configuration with a convex grating is deduced as an example. Related preliminary analyses have been present in this paper as well.