With the development of unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) remote sensing technology, miniature high-resolution imaging spectrometers are greatly needed. In order to improve remote sensing efficiency and get wider coverage, it’s urgent to design and develop fore-optics with wide field of view and waveband for imaging spectrometer. As the refractive system has no central obscuration and it’s conducive to manufacture and assemble, so it’s used for our fore-optics. The key is the correction of secondary spectrum of systems working in broad waveband and meeting the requirement of imagery telecentricity to be appropriate for linear pushbroom imaging system. Suitable glasses are selected on the Glass Map, from where each glass has an Abbe number υd and Partial Dispersion. Based on the theory of Gaussian Optics and Seidel third-order aberration theory, the paper derives apochromatic formula, and the power of individual lenses can be calculated. Then with a required value of spherical aberration and coma, this paper derives equations to calculate the initial structure of apochromatic optical systems. Finally, optimized refractive SWIR fore-optics working in 1μm-2.5μm with effective focal length (EFFL) of 11mm is reported. Its full field and F-number are respectively 40°, F/2.8. The system has many advantages such as simple and compact structure, small size, near diffraction-limited imaging quality, small secondary spectrum and imagery telecentricity. Especially it consists of spherical surfaces that can greatly reduce the difficulty and the cost of manufacture as well as test, which is applicable for SWIR imaging spectrometer with wide field of view.
Astigmatism and distortion aberrations of conventional Offner-type imaging spectrometer with an in-plane diffraction grating will increase dramatically as its spectral dispersion width so that such spectroscopic mounting is usually suitable for such situation that both slit length and spectrum width are medium and that the spectrum width is less than the slit length. To short slit and high dispersion, novel conical diffraction Offner mounting is more appropriate. Based on the operation principle of this kind mounting, a set of optimized designs, which the focal ratio is 4，the spectral region from 400nm to 900nm, the slit length from 0.5mm to 1mm, and the dispersion width from 9.8mm to 28mm are obtained under the same optical size. To evaluate the imaging quality of the designed and to get the relation between slit length and dispersion width, the merit function and spectral response function are considered. The results show that conical diffraction Offner imaging spectrometers can image well while the spectrum width is less than the slit length, but no more than its 20 times.
Compact off-axial two-mirror fore objective with an ultra wide ground coverage and for spaceborne pushbroom imaging spectrometers is studied and designed. Based on Gaussian optics and Young's formulas, the approach to determine its initial structural parameters is presented. In order to meet the required performance, freeform surfaces are used to increase the degree of freedom of our optimization. And the impact of various X-Y polynomials on its pupil aberration is analyzed for elimination of too large smile effect. As an example, an off-axis two-mirror fore telescopic objective with field of view of 108° across-pushbroom direction, F number of 10, focal length of 34 mm and working wavelength range from 0.27 to 2.4 μm is optimally designed, which both the primary and the secondary mirrors have freeform surface. The designed lens has many advantages of simple and compact structure, imagery telecentricity, near diffraction-limited imaging quality, and small smile effect.