We present an update on the overall construction progress of the WEAVE next-generation spectroscopy facility for the William Herschel Telescope (WHT), now that all the major fabrication contracts are in place. We also present a summary of the current planning behind the 5-year initial phase of survey operations, and some detailed end-to-end science simulations that have been effected to evaluate the final on-sky performance after data processing. WEAVE will provide optical ground-based follow up of ground-based (LOFAR) and space-based (Gaia) surveys. WEAVE is a multi-object and multi-IFU facility utilizing a new 2-degree prime focus field of view at the WHT, with a buffered pick-and-place positioner system hosting 1000 multi-object (MOS) fibres, 20 integral field units, or a single large IFU for each observation. The fibres are fed to a single (dual-beam) spectrograph, with total of 16k spectral pixels, located within the WHT GHRIL enclosure on the telescope Nasmyth platform, supporting observations at R~5000 over the full 370-1000nm wavelength range in a single exposure, or a high resolution mode with limited coverage in each arm at R~20000. The project has experienced some delays in procurement and now has first light expected for the middle of 2019.
WEAVE is the new wide field multi-object and integral field survey facility for the prime focus of the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope. It is located at the Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos, in La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. WEAVE fiber-fed spectrograph offers two resolutions, R ~ 5000 and 20,000. It has a collimator mirror and two cameras optimized for the wavelength intervals of 366 - 959 nm and 579 - 959 nm, respectively. One of the responsibilities of INAOE within the WEAVE collaboration is the polishing of the collimator mirror, made of OHARA CLEARCERAM®- Z HS. The collimator has a diameter of 660 mm, a central thickness of 44.7 mm and a weight of 56.8 kg. The main specifications are: 2 fringes irregularity in a clear aperture of 624 mm diameter and a radius of curvature of 1224.65 mm +/- 0.15. In this work, we present the polishing process and final results for the collimator. In particular, we describe the tools developed for its manufacturing, the modifications carried out to the conventional polishing machine to support the glass. Additionally, the interferometric optical irregularity measurements are presented. The collimator polishing process is finished fulfilling all the optical specifications.
WEAVE is the new wide field multi-object and integral field survey facility for the prime focus of the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope. WEAVE fiber-fed spectrograph offers two resolutions, R ~ 5000 and 20,000. The dual-beam spectrograph has two cameras: the blue one optimized for the wavelength interval of 366 - 606 nm and the red one for 579 - 959 nm. Each camera is formed by eight lenses, one aspherical and seven spherical. The lenses of the red camera are identical to the lenses of the blue camera only differentiated by the anti-reflection coating wavelength range. The diameter of the largest surface is 320 mm while of the smallest is 195 mm. INAOE, as a member of the collaboration is responsible of the manufacturing of the 14 spherical lenses and the collimator mirror. Here, we describe the main characteristics of WEAVE high precision cameras lenses, the manufacturing challenges giving the combination of OHARA glasses properties, dimensions and specifications. We discuss the solutions developed to achieve the very demanding specifications.
MEGARA is the new generation IFU and MOS optical spectrograph built for the 10.4m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC). The project was developed by a consortium led by UCM (Spain) that also includes INAOE (Mexico), IAA-CSIC (Spain) and UPM (Spain). The instrument arrived to GTC on March 28th 2017 and was successfully integrated and commissioned at the telescope from May to August 2017. During the on-sky commissioning we demonstrated that MEGARA is a powerful and robust instrument that provides on-sky intermediate-to-high spectral resolutions RFWHM ~ 6,000, 12,000 and 20,000 at an unprecedented efficiency for these resolving powers in both its IFU and MOS modes. The IFU covers 12.5 x 11.3 arcsec2 while the MOS mode allows observing up to 92 objects in a region of 3.5 x 3.5 arcmin2. In this paper we describe the instrument main subsystems, including the Folded-Cassegrain unit, the fiber link, the spectrograph, the cryostat, the detector and the control subsystems, and its performance numbers obtained during commissioning where the fulfillment of the instrument requirements is demonstrated.
On June 25th 2017, the new intermediate-resolution optical IFU and MOS of the 10.4-m GTC had its first light. As part of the tests carried out to verify the performance of the instrument in its two modes (IFU and MOS) and 18 spectral setups (identical number of VPHs with resolutions R=6000-20000 from 0.36 to 1 micron) a number of astronomical objects were observed. These observations show that MEGARA@GTC is called to fill a niche of high-throughput, intermediateresolution IFU and MOS observations of extremely-faint narrow-lined objects. Lyman-α absorbers, star-forming dwarfs or even weak absorptions in stellar spectra in our Galaxy or in the Local Group can now be explored to a new level. Thus, the versatility of MEGARA in terms of observing modes and spectral resolution and coverage will allow GTC to go beyond current observational limits in either depth or precision for all these objects. The results to be presented in this talk clearly demonstrate the potential of MEGARA in this regard.
MEGARA (Multi-Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is an optical Integral-Field Unit (IFU) and Multi-Object Spectrograph (MOS) designed for the GTC 10.4m telescope in La Palma that is being built by a Consortium led by UCM (Spain) that also includes INAOE (Mexico), IAA-CSIC (Spain), and UPM (Spain). The instrument is currently finishing AIV and will be sent to GTC on November 2016 for its on-sky commissioning on April 2017. The MEGARA IFU fiber bundle (LCB) covers 12.5x11.3 arcsec2 with a spaxel size of 0.62 arcsec while the MEGARA MOS mode allows observing up to 92 objects in a region of 3.5x3.5 arcmin2 around the IFU. The IFU and MOS modes of MEGARA will provide identical intermediate-to-high spectral resolutions (RFWHM~6,000, 12,000 and 18,700, respectively for the low-, mid- and high-resolution Volume Phase Holographic gratings) in the range 3700-9800ÅÅ. An x-y mechanism placed at the pseudo-slit position allows (1) exchanging between the two observing modes and (2) focusing the spectrograph for each VPH setup. The spectrograph is a collimator-camera system that has a total of 11 VPHs simultaneously available (out of the 18 VPHs designed and being built) that are placed in the pupil by means of a wheel and an insertion mechanism. The custom-made cryostat hosts a 4kx4k 15-μm CCD. The unique characteristics of MEGARA in terms of throughput and versatility and the unsurpassed collecting are of GTC make of this instrument the most efficient tool to date to analyze astrophysical objects at intermediate spectral resolutions. In these proceedings we present a summary of the instrument characteristics and the results from the AIV phase. All subsystems have been successfully integrated and the system-level AIV phase is progressing as expected.
MEGARA is the new IFU and multiobject spectrograph for Gran Telescopio Canarias. The spectograph will offer spectral resolution Rfwhm~ 6,000, 12,000 and 18,700. Except for the optical fibers and microlenses, the complete MEGARA optical system has been manufactured in Mexico. This includes a field lens, a 5-lenses collimator, a 7-lenses camera and a complete set of volume phase holographic gratings with 36 flat windows and 24 prisms. All these elements are very large and complex, with very efficient antireflection coatings. Here the optical performance of MEGARA collimator and camera lenses and the field lens is presented.
MEGARA (Multi-Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is the new integral-field and multi-object optical spectrograph for the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias.. It will offer RFWHM ~6,000, 12,000 and 18,700 for the low- , mid- and high-resolution, respectively in the wavelength range 3650-9700Å. .The dispersive elements are volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings, sandwiched between two flat Fused Silica windows of high optical precision in large apertures. The design, based in VPHs in combination with Ohara PBM2Y prisms allows to keep the collimator and camera angle fixed. Seventy three optical elements are being built in Mexico at INAOE and CIO. For the low resolution modes, the VPHs windows specifications in irregularity is 1 fringe in 210mm x 170mm and 0.5 fringe in 190mm x 160mm. for a window thickness of 25 mm. For the medium and high resolution modes the irregularity specification is 2 fringes in 220mm x 180mm and 1 fringe in 205mm x 160mm, for a window thickness of 20mm. In this work we present a description of the polishing techniques developed at INAOE optical workshop to fabricate the 36 Fused Silica windows and 24 PBM2Y prisms that allows us to achieve such demanding specifications. We include the processes of mounting, cutting, blocking, polishing and testing.
In this work we describe the use of Finite Element Analysis software to simulate the deformations of an optical mirror. We use Finite Element Method software as a tool to simulate the mirror deformations assuming that it is a thin plate that can be mechanically tensed or compressed; the Finite Element Analysis give us information about the displacements of the mirror from an initial position and the tensions that remains in the surface. The information obtained by means of Finite Element Analysis can be easily exported to a coordinate system and processed in a simulation environment. Finally, a ray-tracing subroutine is used in the obtained data giving us information in terms of aberration coefficients. We present some results of the simulations describing the followed procedure.
In this work, we describe the well-known methods of cutting and shaping for optical glass materials. These operations are very important in optical workshops and needs to be well defined at the beginning of the optical fabrication process. In this work we show the first steps to fabricate prism components for the MEGARA instrument that is being developed to work with the GRANTECAN. We present a review of the techniques used at INAOE´s Optical workshop for cutting blanks of optical glasses with an extensive use in optical fabrication; besides that, we present the process of shaping of these optical glasses just before they enter to the grinding and polishing processes. We present some results showing the described processes and some tips for the methods used in the optical workshop including the use of the necessary supplies, tools, and machinery.
In this work, we show a simple device that helps in the use of the sub-aperture stitching method for testing convex surfaces with large diameter and a small f/#. This device was designed at INAOE’s Optical work shop to solve the problem that exists when a Newton Interferometer and the sub-aperture stitching method are used. It is well known that if the f/# of a surface is small, the slopes over the surface increases rapidly and this is critical for points far from the vertex. Therefore, if we use a reference master in the Newton interferometer to test a convex surface with a large diameter and an area far from the vertex, the master tends to slide causing scratches over the surface under test. To solve this problem, a device for mounting the surface under test with two freedom degrees, a rotating axis and a lever to tilt the surface, was designed. As result, the optical axis of the master can be placed in vertical position avoiding undesired movements of the master and making the sub-aperture stitching easier. We describe the proposed design and the results obtained with this device.
Substructured Ronchi gratings are used to sharpen and increase the number of fringes in Ronchigrams, thereby increasing their spatial resolution and allowing greater accuracy in the evaluation of a surface under test. This work presents a simple method for generating substructured Ronchi gratings and for calculating the intensity pattern produced by this type of grating. For this, we propose the generation of this kind of grating from the linear combination of classical gratings; the pattern of irradiance produced by these Ronchi gratings will be a linear combination of the intensity patterns produced by each combined classical grating. A comparison between theoretical and experimental Ronchigrams was obtained by analyzing a parabolic mirror.
In this work we show a new technique for sub-structured Ronchi rulings generation and the calculation of the irradiance profile produced by this ruling. Commonly, these rulings are used to increase the spatial resolution in the Ronchi test and allow us to observe smaller surface defects. To generate the sub-structured Ronchi ruling we propose a combination of several classical Ronchi rulings with different frequency, in order to calculate the irradiance profile generated by the substructured Ronchi ruling, we propose a combination of the irradiance profile generated by each combined classical Ronchi ruling. The comparison of synthetic and experimental Ronchigrams of spherical surfaces are shown. We found that the proposed method can reproduce reliably the experimental irradiance profile.
The preliminary results in the fabrication of off-axis optical surfaces are presented. The propose using the conventional polishing method and with the surface under mechanical stress at its edges. It starts fabricating a spherical surface using ZERODUR® optical glass with the conventional polishing method, the surface is deformed by applying tension and/or compression at the surface edges using a specially designed mechanical mount. To know the necessary deformation, the interferogram of the deformed surface is analyzed in real time with a ZYGO® Mark II Fizeau type interferometer, the mechanical stress is applied until obtain the inverse interferogram associated to the off-axis surface that we need to fabricate. Polishing process is carried out again until obtain a spherical surface, then mechanical stress in the edges are removed and compares the actual interferogram with the theoretical associated to the off-axis surface. To analyze the resulting interferograms of the surface we used the phase shifting analysis method by using a piezoelectric phase-shifter and Durango® interferometry software from Diffraction International™.
We present the validation for Ronchigram recovery with the random aberrations coefficients (ReRRCA) algorithm. This algorithm was proposed to obtain the wavefront aberrations of synthetic Ronchigrams, using only one Ronchigram without the need for polynomial fits or trapezoidal integrations. The validation is performed by simulating different types of Ronchigrams for on-axis and off-axis surfaces. In order to validate the proposed analysis, the polynomial aberration coefficients that were used to generate the simulated Ronchigrams were retrieved. Therefore, it was verified that the coefficients correspond to the retrieved ones by the algorithm. The results show that the ReRRCA algorithm retrieves the aberration coefficients from the analyzed Ronchigram with a maximum error of 9%.
It is well known that astigmatic surfaces are obtained when surfaces are polished in commercial polishing machines,
which are designed to produce surfaces of revolution. The authors of this paper do not know an explanation for this
In order to understand why the wear is a function of the angular position on the glass, we measured the dragging force
applied from a rotating glass to a small fixed tool of Teflon®. These experiments were done for several tool radial
positions by using a table travel X-Y.
With the aid of a force sensor dragging force as a function of the time was measured. We found that dragging force is a
periodic function with fundamental frequency equal to the angular velocity of the glass, indicating that there is more
wear on one glass angular position than another. We also found that this result is independent of the radial position of the
tool. We used a polisher concentration of 20 degrees Baumé which is recommended by the supplier. And the amount of
polisher per time and area units, dragged by the tool, remained constant for each one of the radial positions of the tool.