Developable BARCs (DBARCs) are useful for implant layers because they eliminate the plasma etch step avoiding
damage to the plasma sensitive layers during implantation. It is expected that DBARC will also be used for non-implant
layers and double exposure technology. AZ has pioneered DBARC based on photosensitive cleave as well as
crosslink/decrosslink mechanisms. In this paper, we focus on various processing factors for 193nm DBARC and discuss
the influences of prewet, thickness, topography and substrates on lithographic performance. Prewet of DBARC before
resist coating deteriorated performance, however, it was resolved by modifying DBARC formulations. The optimized
DBARC showed both optical and lithographic performance comparable to conventional BARCs. DBARCs minimized reflection from the substrates and notching of patterns was improved observed on silicon oxide topography. This paper includes simulation, DBARC contrast curve analyses, and recent dry and immersion exposure results of DBARC.
Developable bottom anti-reflective coatings (DBARC) are an emerging litho material technology. The biggest
advantage of DBARC is that it eliminates the plasma etch step, avoiding damage to plasma sensitive layers during
implantation. AZ has pioneered developable BARC based on photosensitive cleave as well as crosslink/decrosslink
mechanisms. In this paper, we focus on the crosslink/decrosslink concept. DBARC/resist mismatching was corrected
both from process and formulation sides. The optimized DBARC showed comparable lithographic performance as
conventional BARCs. This paper provides the chemical concept of the photosensitive developable DBARCs,
approaches for DBARC/resist matching and performance of photosensitive DBARCs for 248 nm and 193 nm
exposures. Recent 193 nm immersion exposure results are also presented.
Cost-effective approaches to double patterning are currently an area of intense interest. This paper describes an
update on the progress of AZ's Vapor Reaction Chamber (VRC) freeze approach to double patterning. Swift integration
of the VRC process will depend on whether or not a commercial prime chamber can function as a VRC chamber without
modifications. Procedures for testing this were developed and applied to a lab VRC and 2 AHD modules. Results
demonstrate that for the 8in ADH the across wafer freeze uniformity is within the experimental error of the FT-IR
measurements used to evaluate the process, but that some slight variation was seen for the 12in ADH.
In addition, progress has been made in improving double imaging profiles over earlier work which used the same
resist in both exposures on ArF 1C5D substrates. This work looked at the benefits of using different substrates, establish
a suitable resist for each exposure, and using substrate treatments to improve profiles.
Trilayer stacks with alternating etch selectivity were developed and extensively investigated
for high NA immersion lithography at 32nm node and beyond. This paper discusses the
fundamental aspects of the Si-containing BARC (Si-BARC) materials with ultra-high silicon
content and carbon-rich underlayers that we developed. Designing of materials at a molecular level
is presented. It was demonstrated that this fundamental understanding assisted in achieving
satisfactory shelf life and excellent coating defect results.
Prolith® simulations using trilayer stacks showed superior reflectivity control for hyper-NA
immersion lithography. The impact of high incident angles on substrate reflectivity was analyzed
and this paper demonstrated that trilayer scheme provides wider process windows and is more
tolerant to topography than conventional single layer BARC. Extensive resist compatibility
investigation was conducted and the root causes for poor lithography results were investigated.
Excellent 45nm dense lines performance employing the spin-on trilayer stack on a 1.2 NA
immersion scanner is reported. In addition, pattern transfers were successfully carried out and the
Si-BARC with high silicon content demonstrated outstanding masking property. In comparison to
the theoretical %Si values, better correlation with etch selectivity was observed with
experimental %Si. Furthermore, this paper addresses the wet rework of trilayer materials and
results using Piranha rework are presented. Clean 12in wafers were obtained after reworking
trilayer stacks, as evidenced by defect analysis.