The effects of X-ray and gamma irradiation on the optical properties of CdTe/CdS quantum dots (QDs) immobilized in a functionalized porous silicon film have been investigated via continuous wave and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. Carrier lifetimes of the QDs and photoluminescence intensities decrease with increasing exposure dose from 500 krad(SiO2) to 16 Mrad(SiO2).
The operability requirements of NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) impose specific challenges on radiation effects mitigation and analysis. For example, the NIRSpec Instrument has the following requirements: •The percentage of pixels defined as operable for target acquisition shall not be less than 97% (TBR) (goal 99%) of the total number of pixels... An inoperable pixel is: ο A dead pixel: a pixel with no radiometric response o A noisy pixel: a pixel with a total noise greater than 21 e-, per Fowler 8 exposure •The percentage of pixels defined as operable for science observations shall not be less than 92% (TBR) (goal 98%) of the total number of pixels... An inoperable pixel is: ο A dead/low-DQE pixel: a pixel deviating by >30% from the DQE mean value ο A noisy pixel: a pixel with a total noise greater than 12 e- (goal 9e-). With these performance requirements and operation in space, the radiation environment from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), energetic solar particles, and activation of spacecraft materials can contribute significantly to the number of inoperable pixels. The two most important issues to date are radiation-induced transient effects and hot pixels. This paper focuses on the methods used to assess the impact of ionizing radiation induced transients on the HgCdTe SCA selected by JWST. Hot pixel effects in these detectors has been previously presented. Both effects are currently under investigation.
A Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) CCD detector was tested for radiation effects while operating at -83C. The goal of the experiment was to evaluate the introduction and annealing rates of hot pixels and to assess the dynamics of that process. The device was irradiated while cold and warmed to +30°C for a 4 hour soak, then cooled back down to -83°C. Hot pixel populations were tracked during warm up and cool down. The results showed that the hot pixels begin to anneal around -40°C and the anneal process was largely completed before the detector reached +30°C. It was also found that, although a large fraction of the hot pixels dropped below the threshold, they remained warmer than the remaining population.
As the logical extension of the 20-year mission of the Hubble Space Telescope, NASA plans to launch the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST, formerly NGST) near the end of this decade. As Hubble's scientific and technological successor, equipped with a 6-meter-class deployable mirror, JWST will allow observations of the very early universe
and initial formation of galaxies at levels not achievable today. JWST's unprecedented sensitivity cannot be utilized without a new class of IR focal plane arrays whose performance matches that of the telescope. In particular, JWST focal planes must be able to withstand the ionizing-particle radiation environment expected for its Lagrange-point (L2) orbit and ten-year mission lifetime goal. To help determine their suitability for JWST, NASA is evaluating prototype
megapixel-class readouts and hybrid detector arrays under proton bombardment to simulate the anticipated JWST lifetime radiation dose. This report describes the results of early tests on devices from two manufacturers using photovoltaic (HgCdTe or InSb) candidate near-infrared detector structures. Results to date have shown encouraging
performance, along with some areas of continuing concern.
A Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) flight-like IR detector was tested for radiation hardness by exposing it to high energy protons while operating at the nominal flight temperature of 150 K. The detector is a 1.7 μm cutoff HgCdTe detector with a CdZnTe substrate. The device is hybridized to a silicon multiplexer. The detector response was tested for gradually increasing fluence from less than 1x103 to a total of 5x109 63 MeV protons/cm2. Dark current changes were evaluated after each step. An increase in dark current and new hot pixels were observed after large steps of irradiation. The increased dark current was observed to partially anneal at 190K and fully anneal at room temperature. Radiation effects, hot pixel distribution, and results of annealing at different temperatures are presented here.
A Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) CCD detector was tested for radiation effects while operating at -83°C. The detector has a format of 2048 x 2048 pixels with a 15 μm square pixel size, a supplemental buried channel, an MPP implant, and is back side illuminated. Detector response was tested for total radiation fluences ranging from 1x103 to 2.5x109 of 63.3 MeV protons/cm2 and for a
range of beam intensities. Radiation damage was investigated and the annealing of damage was tested by warming up to +30°C. The introduction rate of hot pixels and their statistics, hot pixel annealing as a function of temperature and time, and radiation changes to the mean value of dark current were investigated. Results are compared with the experiences of other HST instruments.
With the rapidly increasing insertion of photonic devices, circuits and subsystems into NASA spacecraft, a variety of issues associated with reliability and radiation tolerance have arisen. In this paper, we discuss these issues from the perspective of the work currently ongoing in the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program. This Program is focused on evaluating the reliability and radiation response of advanced and emerging microelectronics and photonics technologies of interest to NASA spacecraft system designers. Examples to be discussed include radiation studies of various optoelectronic devices and reliability of photonic components. These studies have been motivated in part by problems observed in space that include the failure of optocouplers on TOPEX/Poseidon, and the observation of single event-induced transients in the Hubble Space Telescope.
Proton induced charge transfer efficiency (CTE) degradation has been studied in the large format charge-coupled device (CCD) flight-like candidates for Wide Field Camera 3 for the Hubble Space Telescope. These detectors were irradiated with different proton fluences. This
paper focuses on the statistical nature of CTE degradation due to damage on one of the irradiated devices with exceptional initial CTE characteristics. In radiation damaged CCDs, CTE noise can be the dominant noise component. In contrast to other noise sources, CTE noise has a component of fixed pattern noise that can be removed by the appropriate calibration technique. A large set of data was acquired and analysis of it confirms the expectation that CTE damage is a local phenomenon and it varies widely across the CCD surface. Possible mitigation solutions and their practicality are discussed in some detail.