A language has been created to facilitate the automatic execution of simulations for purposes of enabling parametric study and test and evaluation. Its function is similar in nature to a job-control language, but more capability is provided in that the language extends the notion of literate programming to job control. Interwoven markup tags self document and define the job control process. The language works in tandem with another language used to describe physical systems. Both languages are implemented in the Extensible Markup Language (XML). A user describes a physical system for simulation and then creates a set of instructions for automatic execution of the simulation. Support routines merge the instructions with the physical-system description, execute the simulation the specified number of times, gather the output data, and document the process and output for the user. The language enables the guided exploration of a parameter space and can be used for simulations that must determine optimal solutions to particular problems. It is generalized enough that it can be used with any simulation input files that are described using XML. XML is shown to be useful as a description language, an interchange language, and a self-documented language.
The analysis of use cases describing construction of simulation configuration files in a data/information management system can lead to the acquisition of new information and knowledge. In this application, a user creates a use case with an eXtensible Markup Language (XML) description representing a configuration file for simulation of a physical system. INtelligent agents analyze separate versions of the XML descriptions of a user and additionally, make comparisons of the descriptions with examples form a library of use cases. The agents can then make recommendations to a user on how to proceed or if tutoring is necessary. In a proof-of-concept test, new information is acquired and a user learns from the agent-facilitated tutoring.
The notion of perspective when supported in knowledge representation can allow the representation of multiple and varying points of view, some of which may even be inconsistent with one another. In an object-based knowledge representation methodology created and used by the authors, a perspective is defined by consolidating a number of objects and a number of those objects' associated attributes and method into a view. This view can help partition a knowledge domain into separate portions. A separate portion represents an individual's view of the knowledge domain. Representation of multiple and varying perspectives can add detail and context to the knowledge in a knowledge domain. The ability to create new perspectives may add to the existing knowledge as well as reveal paths to additional knowledge. A simple example is presented where perspectives are used to represent game playing strategies and levels of expertise in those strategies. Players' perspectives are adapted and changed to provide additional knowledge and insight into further game playing strategies. Results show improvement in the playing of the games. Additionally, a more complex problem for applying these techniques is introduced.
Dissemination of battlespace information involves getting information to particular warfighters that is both useful and in a form that facilitates the tasks of those particular warfighters. There are two issues which motivate this problem of dissemination. The first issue deals with disseminating pertinent information to a particular warfighter. This can be thought of as information suppression. The second issue deals with facilitating the use of the information by tailoring the computer interface to the specific tasks of an individual warfighter. This can be thought of as interface complexity suppression. This paper presents a framework for suppressing information using an object-based knowledge representation methodology. This methodology has the ability to represent knowledge and information in multiple perspectives. Information can be suppressed by creating a perspective specific to an individual warfighter. In this way, only the information pertinent and useful to a warfighter is made available to that warfighter. Information is not removed, lost, or changed, but spread among multiple perspectives. Interface complexity is managed in a similar manner. Rather than have one generalized computer interface to access all information, the computer interface can be divided into interface elements. Interface elements can then be selected and arranged into a perspective-specific interface. This is done in a manner to facilitate completion of tasks contained in that perspective. A basic battlespace domain containing ground and air elements and associated warfighters is used to exercise the methodology.
Repertory grids and other matrix-like structures can be used to represent knowledge and elicit knowledge from experts. A grid or matrix is a representation of a knowledge domain where the elements in the domain appear along the horizontal axis and constructs or attributes of the elements appear along the vertical axis. Each construct is rated for its presence in a given element or how much a construct applies to an element. Analysis of these ratings can determine similarities and differences between the elements. Traditionally, constructs are bipolar entities where a rating falls on a range from one pole to the other. For example, temperature may be represented by the bipolar construct hot-cold and a range of 1 to 5 in which 1 represents hot and 5 represents cold. Ratings of 2, 3, and 4 lie in-between hot and cold. Additionally, all constructs in a grid have the same range of values and the range is arbitrarily chosen. This paper presents a method for translating grid ratings into fuzzy membership values. The fuzzy membership values become the values for describing and analyzing the associations between elements. Thus, constructs no longer need to use the same scaling range and no longer need to be bipolar. A construct of an element now becomes a true attribute of an element. An attribute can be rated in its own range and with its own unit of measurement. In the previous example, the bipolar construct hot-cold becomes simply, temperature measured in degrees. Experts or users need no longer translate to an artificial rating range.
Chemically generated CO laser pulses at 10.6 im have been used to clear a 5cm diameter
hole through a stratus-like cloud in a laboratory cloud chamber. The results show that 100% clearing
can be achieved. The mechanism is shown to be droplet shattering followed by evaporation. Under
the conditions of the experiment, the channel closure is dominated by turbulent mixing and not droplet