The most important task in Moscow metro is increasing safety of railway traffic. For safety purposes six track parameters are measured in Moscow Metro with help of track measurement car. Equipment mounted on this car works only in contact mode and doesn't provide modem requirements for accuracy. Also important task is measurement at high speeds, but contact technology limits speed of movement up to 25mph on rail switches. Current system can't measure in real-time mode.
For decision of these field of tasks non-contact photonic measurement system (KSIR) is constructed. The KSIR works at speeds up to 70 mph and measure seven track parameters.
The KSIR contains four subsystems: rail wear, height and track gauge measurement (BFSM); rail slump measurement (FTP); contact rail measurement (FKR); speed, level and car locating (USI).
KSIR contains five CCD matrix cameras, four line CCD cameras, five infrared stripe lasers and four spot infrared lasers.
Laser forms shape on the rail. CCD-camera acquires rail image and transfers it into the digital signal processor which produces preliminary calculation ofrail shape. Then image is transferred into the central computer to calculate values of rail characteristics.
Angles between photonic unit and rail bring distortions in images from cameras. Additional distortions are caused by short-focus optics and small distance between camera and track. This distance is limited by structure clearance. The transformation algorithms for distortions elimination are applied. It's based on surfaces spline-approximation. As a result the KSIR calculates coefficients of approximating polynomials. The calibration is performed for checking accuracy of measurement in BFSM, FTP and FKR units. Evaluation techniques of accuracy characteristics are considered.
Information and telecommunication technologies (ITT) are already tool economic development of society and their role will grow. The first task is providing of information security of ITT that is necessary for it distribution in "information" society. The state policy of the leading world countries (USA, France, Japan, Great Britain and China) is focused on investment huge funds in innovative technologies development. Within the next 4-6 years the main fiber-optic transfer lines will have data transfer speed 40 Gbit/s, number of packed channels 60-200 that will provide effective data transfer speed 2,4-8 Tbit/s. Photonic-crystalline fibers will be promising base of new generation fiber-optic transfer lines. The market of information imaging devices and digital photo cameras will be grown in 3-5 times. Powerful lasers based on CO2 and Nd:YAG will be actively used in transport machinery construction when producing aluminum constructions of light rolling-stock.
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) will be base for energy saving and safety light sources used for vehicles and indoor lighting. For example, in the USA cost reducing for lighting will be 200 billion dollars. Implementation analysis of optic electronic photonic technologies (OPT) in ground and aerospace systems shows that they provide significant increasing of traffic safety, crew and passengers comfort with help of smart vehicles construction and non-contact dynamic monitoring both transport facilities (for example, wheel flanges) and condition of rail track (road surface), equipping vehicles with night vision equipment. Scientific-technical programs of JSC "RZD" propose application of OPT in new generation systems: axle-box units for coaches and freight cars monitoring when they are moved, track condition analysis, mechanical stress and permanent way irregularity detection, monitoring geometric parameters of aerial contact wire, car truck, rail and wheel pair roll surface, light signals automatic detection from locomotive, video monitoring, gyroscopes based on fiber optic.
Increasing of traffic speed is the most important task in Moscow Metro. Requirements for traffic safety grow up simultaneously with the speed increasing. Currently for track inspection in Moscow Metro is used track measurement car has built in 1954. The main drawbacks of this system are absence of automated data processing and low accuracy. Non-contact photonic measurement system (KSIR) is developed for solving this problem. New track inspection car will be built in several months. This car will use two different track inspection systems and car locating subsystem based on track circuit counting.
The KSIR consists of four subsystems: rail wear, height and track gauge measurement (BFSM); rail slump measurement (FIP); contact rail measurement (FKR); speed, level and car locating (USI). Currently new subsystem for wheel flange wear (IRK) is developed. The KSIR carry out measurements in real-time mode. The BFSM subsystem contains 4 matrix CCD cameras and 4 infrared stripe illuminators. The FIP subsystem contains 4 line CCD cameras and 4 spot illuminators. The FKR subsystem contains 2 matrix CCD cameras and 2 stripe illuminators. The IRK subsystem contains 2 CCD cameras and 2 stripe illuminators. Each system calibration was carried out for their adjustment. On the first step KSIR obtains data from photonic sensors which is valued in internal measurement units. Due to the calibration on the second step non-contact system converts the data to metric measurement system.
The safety of railway traffic depends on state of the track. About ten parameters are measured on Moscow Metropolitan for rail control. At present time the contact technology is used that doesn't provide required accuracy, limits speed of movement up to 25 mph and doesn't work in real-time mode.
Non-contact photonic measurement system (KSIR) is developed which can works at speeds up to 70 mph.
The KSIR consists of four subsystems: rail wear, height and track gauge measurement (BFSM); rail slump measurement (FIP); contact rail measurement (FKR); speed, level and car locating (USI).
KSIR contains five CCD matrix cameras, four line CCD cameras, five infrared stripe lasers and four spot infrared lasers. Preliminary image processing is carried out using digital signal processor.
The images from cameras are distorted because there is angle between photonic unit and rail. Additional distortions are caused by short-focus optics and small distance between camera and track. This distance is limited by structure clearance. For distortion eliminating is applied the transformation algorithms. It's based on surfaces spline-approximation. As a result the KSIR calculates coefficients of approximating polynomials. The calibration is performed for checking accuracy of measurement in BFSM, FIP and FKR units.
At present, in Moscow metro a track inspection vehicle is used to measure rail track hollows. The main drawbacks of the existing subsystem are low accuracy and contact mode of measurement. To eliminate drawbacks the photonic subsystem for rail track hollows measurement (PHM) is proposed. The PHM consists of two photonic units (one unit on each rail). The photonic unit consists of CCD line, dotty laser and matt bar. The laser pixel reflects from matt bar to line CCD. When the hollow is changed the number of illuminated pixel in camera is change. A communication unit combines outputs of the cameras. It performs conversion from RS-485 levels to RS-232 levels. The central computer executes the hollow value estimation and its comparison with the pattern.
At present, in Moscow metro a track inspection vehicle, defectoscope and portable measurement instruments are used to measure the rail profile and the condition of track. The track inspection vehicle measures 8 parameters, such as rail height, width, lip flow, cant, gauge and rail identification. The main drawback of the existing track control devices is a contact mode of measurement that does not provide required accuracy during the movement of the track inspection vehicle. This drawback can be eliminated using the non-contact photonic system (NPS). NPS consists of four special digital CCD-cameras and four lasers (two cameras and two lasers on each rail), rigidly connected together and mounted underneath the rail inspection vehicle in such a manner that corners of vision and distances from the cameras up to the head of the rail remain fixed during the movement. A special processor is included at the output of each camera. It performs preliminary processing of the stripe image on the appropriate side of a rail and then codes (compresses) and transfers data to central computer. The central computer executes the rail profile restoration and its comparison with the pattern of the rail on the particular section of the track.