High resolution microlithographic reduction lenses are described. Design examples of projection lenses for i-line exposure lithography and for excimer laser exposure system are presented. The performance evaluation of these designs are also shown.
This paper reviews the methods of selecting optical materials for designing apochromatic and superachromatic lenses. The application of these glass combinations to the design of photographic lenses and microscope objectives is reported.
This paper reviews the developments in the design of color corrected lens systems particularly apochromats and superachromats. The historical development of the theory, method of selecting compatible optical materials and design techniques are summarized. Examples of apochromats and superachromats are described and the performance evaluations of these designs are shown.
Apochromatic designs of lens systems utilizing two and three optical materials are described. The performance evaluations of these designs are shown. The chromatic correction of some of these apochromats is investigated using measured values of refractive indices of glass melts.
Superachromatic designs of lens systems utilizing two optical materials are described. Design examples comprising an infrared doublet a hybrid refractive-diffractive lens catadioptric systems and Gauss objectives are presented. The performance evaluations of these designs are also shown. 1.
The optimization and realization of the relief structure for
binary diffractive elements is implemented through a computer
program which has been named DIFFOPTRAN. The program's input can
consist of the required phase profile generated by some external
means, such as CODEV, or the user can select analytical forms for
the various input parameters, e.g. planar or curved surfaces,
incident beam profile, or phase functions describing gratings or
other optical elements. DIFFOPTRAN is capable of propagating
gaussian or supergaussian beams through the optical element in its
original description as conventional refractive elements, or it can
perform conversion of the input element into a binary diffractive
element and then propagate a beam through it. The propagation can
be done as a function of various parameters. The efficiency, beam
sizes and centroid postions are computed in the observation plane.
The emphasis of this course is on materials selection, basic design and development methods. Using a progressive series of case studies, image forming and beam shaping systems at wavelengths <404.7 nm (h-line) are discussed. These include wide-angle cameral lenses, microscope objectives, and optics for laser ablation. Anamorphic systems for excimer beam shaping and homgenization are covered. The course ends with high-NA catadioptic and all-reflective image systems for applications in the DUV and EUV, respectively.