We developed a high definition holographic display with two different approaches. First approach is to adjust a wellknown display technology using a liquid crystal as an optical modulator. While merit of display technology is a large panel size, the challenge is to define a small pixel pitch and to reduce a crosstalk effect of a liquid crystal. Second approach is to adapt a silicon technology with a new optical modulator, Ge2Sb2Te5. Although we can easily define a small pixel pitch, we have to confront a small panel size. We will explain our solutions to overcome these issues.
A switchable diffraction device capable of driving with segment electrodes has been proposed and its operating characteristics were analyzed. The switchable diffraction device is based on a variable cavity structure using reversible electrodeposition technology and two kinds of diffraction gratings are designed to be selectively switched according to the driving electrode. The fabricated device was able to switch the diffraction patterns without any interference between the electrodes, which means that the interference between the electrodes will not be a problem in further device integration with driving circuits. However, when the electrode isolation is not perfect due to parasitic resistance between the electrodes, a weak interference between the electrodes is observed in the diffraction pattern. Therefore, it is expected that ensuring complete insulation between the electrodes will be a very important in the integration of the device. The proposed device can be used as a light control device, an image switchable hologram, etc. Furthermore, it is expected to be applied to reconfigurable metasurfaces through integration with active matrix circuits in the future.
SLM (Spatial Light Modulator) with ultra fine pixel pitch (circa 1 micron meter) has been thought as a big issue to realize electronic hologram with wide viewing angle. Two types of approach are proposed for accomplish SLM panel with 1 micron meter pitch pixel.
SLM with LC light modulator controlled by TFT based backplane constructed on glass substrate is proposed according to the methods of scaling down flat-panel display technology. Introduction of sub micron meter patterning processes, the SLM panel with 3 micron meter pitch pixel was successfully developed for the first time. The SLM with 2 inch diagonal length had the resolution of 16K by 2K. Hologram with depth was reconstructed with manufactured SLM. Oxide semiconductor TFTs of 1 micron meter channel length with high performance have been developed for the SLM. Technical issues to accomplish 1 micron meter pitch pixel will be discussed.
PCM (phase change material) has been used for memory devices and information recording devices. In former case, information is recorded and read using electrical signal. For latter case, information is recorded and read using light (laser) signal. We propose a SLM with PCM such that information is recorded using electrical signal and read using light signal. The light modulation of PCM pattern recorded by pulsed laser was successfully demonstrated using reconstruction of hologram images. Operation of arrayed pixels with PCM pattern driven by Si MOSFET is under development. Technical challenges for SLM with PCM will be discussed.
We developed a high-resolution active matrix spatial light modulator on a glass substrate. To integrate a switching device on the glass substrate, we designed a high-performance oxide thin-film transistor with a minimum channel length of 1 μm and a maximum processing temperature of 380°C. To drive a large number of data lines, we used multiple source drivers and data drivers as well. For an optical modulation, we optimized a liquid crystal of a high anisotropic refractive index of 0.25 with a cell gap of 2.5 μm, which was effectively operated until pixel pitch is 1.6 μm. Hologram was successfully reconstructed by fabricated SLM with 7-μm pixel pitch. For the other approach for a high-resolution spatial light modulator, we tested a phase change material of Ge2Sb2Te5 [GST]. The variation of refractive index between a polycrystalline phase and an amorphous phase of the GST film is used for a hologram reconstruction. By optimizing the underlying oxide thickness, we can show a color hologram without color filters.