During the solar flares the absolute radiation flux increases essentially and the most significant increase (up to the factor of 104) takes place the soft X-ray spectral range. In 2001-2002 the solar X-ray-spectrometer was built in the S.I. Vavilov Space Optical Institute in the framework of the project 1523 of the International Science and Technology Center with the support of European Community and Republic of Korea. The instrumentation is dedicated for permanent registration of absolute solar fluxes during the all periods of solar activity - from quiet Sun to the most powerful solar flares. The paper describes the results of our work in progress on development of optical-electronic apparatus for Space Patrol of solar soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiations and presents the last device of this apparatus - solar X-ray-spectrometer and the first results of its laboratory testing. There are no plans to install this apparatus for the Space Solar Patrol at the Russian Module of the International Space Station and at the satellite with solar-synchronous orbit at the altitude of 550 km to be launched by the M.V. Khrunichev State Space Center.
One of the gaps of the modern solar-terrestrial physics is an absence of the permanent space monitoring of the soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation from the full disk of Sun. The permanent Solar Patrol at the main part of the ionizing radiation spectra 0.8-115 (119) nm does not exist. These measurements are very complicated because of the technical and methodological difficulties. In S.I. Vavilov State Optical Institute (SOI) the apparatus for the Space Solar Patrol (SSP) has been developed in the period 1996-2002 years which includes multiyear experience of developing such apparatus. The base of this apparatus is the use of unique detectors of ionizing radiation the open secondary electron multipliers, which are “solar blind” to near UV, visible and IR radiations of the Sun, and new methodology of these solar spectrophotometric absolute measurements. There are plans to launch the optical electronic apparatus (OEA) of SSP at the Russian Segment of the International Space Station for experimental operation. The paper presents results on the methodology, creating and laboratory testing of the apparatus for Space Solar Patrol Mission.
The description of the testing for EUV-spectrometer of Space Patrol of the soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation of Sun is presented. The wavelength calibration was made in vacuum chamber with a window from MgF2. It allows to get spectra in three channels at wavelengths above 1 13 nm. Particularly attention is paid to discussion of observed noises. Analysis of sources of these noises is presented and method of their decreasing at measurements of spectra of Solar ionizing radiation is shortly discussed.
One of the gaps of the modern solar-terrestrial physics is an absence of the permanent space monitoring of the soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation from the full disk of Sun. The permanent Solar Patrol at the main part of the ionizing radiation spectra 0.8 - 115 (119) nm does not exist. These measurements are very complicated because of the technical and methodological difficulties. One of these difficulties is testing of the apparatus for soft ionizing radiation measurements. The optical-electronic apparatus for Solar Patrol Mission consists of X-ray and EUV radiometer and EUV- spectrometer. In this paper the first results of testing the optical-electronic apparatus for the Solar Patrol Mission are presented.
The conception and results of modernization of the EUV radiation spectrometer for use in the Solar Patrol Mission in the framework of Russian project. 'The creation of permanent space patrol of soft X-ray and hard UV solar radiation' are presented. The EUV spectrometer is one of three devices developed for the above patrol together with soft X-ray and EUV radiometer and spectrometer. The main purpose of the Solar Patrol Mission is the permanent monitoring of the solar activity including the periods of solar flares which will allow the variation of absolute fluxes of ionizing radiation and its spectral composition to be determined. These data are of great importance for solving the problems for solar- terrestrial relations.
Some aspects of a new method of registrating radioactive ejections to the atmosphere from, for instance, nuclear power stations are discussed. The method based on the remote dejection of the optical flourescence of the air ionized by the radionuclides of the ejections. We propose to detect the three blue optical emission bands from the highly ionized molecules of oxygen. This will provide reliable selection of the ejection radiation from the radiation of other natural or artificial sources. The apparatus for remote detection of the regular ejections from nuclear power stations for the purpose of experimental testing the new method is developed in the framework of the proposal for International Science and Technology Center number 1240 'Development of the optical method of the remote registration of radioactive air ejections'.
The variations of the intensity and spectral distribution of the EUV and x-ray solar fluxes from the whole disk in the wavelength range 0.1 - 134 nm are the main reason of changes in all upper atmospheric and ionospheric parameters and one of the principal factors in the solar-terrestrial relation changes. However the permanent monitoring of the solar EUV and soft x-ray radiation (0.8 - 120 nm) is absent at present. In this paper the recent advances in the elaboration of the topical-electronic apparatus complex for the permanent space patrol of EUV and soft x-ray solar radiation are discussed and optical schemes of solar spectrometers of grazing and normal incidence with diffraction gratings and also their energetic characteristics are presented.
The solar extreme ultraviolet EUV and x-ray radiation is the main source of energy in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere of Earth. However the permanent satellite monitoring of the EUV and soft x-ray radiation still does not exist. This fact exclusively connected with technical difficulties of space measurements and calibration in this spectral range. The project is based on the experience in the development, creating and exploration of radiometers and grating spectrometers for measurements of absolute solar ionizing fluxes on the Soviet satellites. The main methodological characteristics of the measurements and information processing are given.
The radioactive gas and aerosol ejections during and after accident at the nuclear power-station are very dangerous source of environmental pollution. These ejections are spread by meteorological air flows above considerable distances (up to several thousands km and more). This radioactive cloud is gradually blown away, changing its form and density. Because of the air heating over the accidental place the radioactive cloud can rise up to 14 km (tropopause). Therefore the dissipation and settling of radioactive nuclides are occurred over very large area. In this paper the optical method of registration of radioactive air ejection by means of particular bands of atmospheric fluorescence with very high threshold of excitation due to Auger effect is presented. There are three emission bands which are quite prominent and lie in the blue range of spectrum (400-480nm). It is important that they are absent in other events of natural and technological air emissions, besides short time lightning. The intensity of these emissions is much higher than background, especially at night. The transformation ratio from y-radiation flux to the visual one (for three bands) is 10-1 - 10-2 and for large accident like in Chernobyl one the optical emission (for radioactive cloud of 106 Ci) could be approximately 1014 - 1015 photons·c-1. For remote sensing of the radioactive air ejection the filter radiometer should be recommended the filters corresponding to the wavelengths of the particular emission bands. In existing aerospace remote sensing experiments these filters still haven't been used. Keywords: nuclear power-station, accident, radioactive cloud, optical fluorescence, Auger effect
The peculiarities of the space absolute radiometric measurements of the solar radiation flux from full disk in the range from 0.14 to 135 nm are discussed in details. The experience of similar radiometer functioning at the Soviet satellite 'Cosmos-381' in 1970/71 is used. This radiometer together with two grating spectrometers of grazing and oblique incidence will form the complex of apparatus for the permanent space patrol of the solar EUV and x-ray radiation.
The rocket and then the satellite investigations of the solar ionizing flux were started nearly fifty years ago (1946) but they still have not led to the permanent monitoring of the soft x ray and EUV solar radiations -- the principal factor that is controlling the main processes and parameters of the ionosphere and upper atmosphere and the energetics of solar-terrestrial relation. In view of this important fact and taking into account the EUV and particularly x ray variability which differs strongly for each of the solar rotations and solar cycles especially during solar flares, our knowledge of these fluxes is astonishingly incomplete. The main reason of the absence of the permanent solar radiation patrol is exclusively connected with technical and methodological difficulties of the space measurements in this spectral range. The present paper proposes a possible way of deciding the problem using the experience of the S.I. Vavilov State Optical Institute in the measurements of the solar ionizing fluxes on the satellites Cosmos-262 and Cosmos-381. The optical apparatus for the space permanent patrol are briefly described and some methodological problems of the information processing are discussed taking into account the real space conditions under which the registration of the EUV and x- ray fluxes is carried out.
The data on spacecraft glow are discussed. The results of the observations of this phenomenon from the orbital stations confirming the contribution of solar and geomagnetic activity to the glow intensity are presented. The possible hypotheses about the mechanisms of this contribution are analyzed and the space weather parameters which affect the glow brightness are examined. The conclusion is made that there are two reasons that amplify the glow brightness: the increase of the upper atmosphere density on the low-Earth orbit (LEO) after a series of solar flares and global magnetic storms, and the increase of the intensity of solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation scattered in geocorona to the night side after isolate global magnetic storms. In the latter case the contribution of O++ ions to scattering should be taken into account, especially if subsequent large storm have the same type of commencement.