An intraoperative surgical microscope is an essential tool in a neuro- or ophthalmological surgical environment. Yet, it has an inherent limitation to classify subsurface information because it only provides the surface images. To compensate for and assist in this problem, combining the surgical microscope with optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been adapted. We developed a real-time virtual intraoperative surgical OCT (VISOCT) system by adapting a spectral-domain OCT scanner with a commercial surgical microscope. Thanks to our custom-made beam splitting and image display subsystems, the OCT images and microscopic images are simultaneously visualized through an ocular lens or the eyepiece of the microscope. This improvement helps surgeons to focus on the operation without distraction to view OCT images on another separate display. Moreover, displaying the OCT live images on the eyepiece helps surgeon’s depth perception during the surgeries. Finally, we successfully processed stimulated penetrating keratoplasty in live rabbits. We believe that these technical achievements are crucial to enhance the usability of the VISOCT system in a real surgical operating condition.
We have developed an intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy (IS-PAM) system by integrating an optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) and conventional surgical microscope. Based on the common optical path in the OR-PAM and microscope system, we can acquire the PAM and microscope images at the same time. Furthermore, by utilizing a mini-sized beam projector, 2D PAM images are back-projected onto the microscope view plane as augmented reality. Thus, both the conventional microscopic and 2D cross-sectional PAM images are displayed on the plane through an eyepiece lens of the microscope. In our method, additional image display tool is not required to show the PAM image. Therefore, it potentially offers significant convenience to surgeons without movement of their sights during surgeries. In order to demonstrate the performance of our IS-PAM system, first, we successfully monitored needle intervention in phantoms. Moreover, we successfully guided needle insertion into mice skins in vivo by visualizing surrounding blood vessels from the PAM images and the magnified skin surfaces from the conventional microscopic images simultaneously.
We report the development of a combined dual-modal photoacoustic and optical coherence tomography (PA-OCT) system using a single near-infrared (NIR) supercontinuum laser source which can provide both optical absorption and scattering contrasts simultaneously. By using a small sized pulsed Nd:YAG microchip laser and a photonic crystal fiber, we fabricated a pulsed broadband supercontinuum source from 600 to 1700 nm. Under the same optical hardware system, intrinsically registered PA and OCT images are acquired in a single scanning. In order to demonstrate feasibility of our system, we successfully acquired the PA and OCT images of black and white hairs images at the same time. The black hair was detected in both PA and OCT images, while the white hair appeared only in the OCT image. This result suggests the potential of compact, cost-effective, and simple dual-modal PA-OCT system. Moreover, we believe that this approach will be a key point for commercialization and clinical translation.