In this paper we review the physics and performance of silicon detectors passivated with wafer-scale molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and atomic layer deposition (ALD). MBE growth of a two-dimensional (2D) doping superlattice on backside-illuminated (BSI) detectors provides nearly perfect protection from interface traps, even at trap densities in excess of 1014 cm-2. Superlattice-doped, BSI CMOS imaging detectors show no measurable degradation of quantum efficiency or dark current from long-term exposure to pulsed DUV lasers. Wafer-scale superlattice-doping has been used to passivate CMOS and CCD imaging arrays, fully-depleted CCDs and photodiodes, and large-area avalanche photodiodes. Superlattice-doped CCDs with ALD-grown antireflection coatings achieved world record quantum efficiency at deep and far ultraviolet wavelengths (100-300nm). Recently we have demonstrated solar-blind, superlattice doped avalanche photodiodes using integrated metal-dielectric coatings to achieve selective detection of ultraviolet light in the 200-250 nm spectral range with high out-of-band rejection.