A reflective fiber optic sensor based on a Fabry-Perot cavity made by splicing two sections of multimode fiber is demonstrated to measure the needle curvature. The sensing structure was incorporated into a medical needle and characterized for curvature and temperature measurements. The maximum sensitivity of -0.152dB/m-1 was obtained to the curvature measurements, with a resolution of 0.089m-1. When subjected to temperature, the sensing head presented a low temperature sensitivity, which resulted in a small cross-sensitivity.
In this work we demonstrate the multiplexing capability of new optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometers based on airmicrocavities using a commercial FBG interrogator. Three optimized air-microcavity interferometer sensors have been multiplexed in a single network and have been monitored using the commercial FBGs interrogator in combination with FFT calculations. Results show a sensitivity of 2.18 π rad/mε and a crosstalk-free operation.
A reflective fiber optic sensor based on multimode interference for the measurement of relative humidity (RH) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The proposed probe is fabricated by fusion-splicing, approximately 30 mm long coreless fiber section to a single mode fiber. A hydrophilic agarose gel is coated on the coreless fiber, using the dip coating technique. When the incident light comes from the SMF to the CSF, the high-order modes are excited and propagate within the CSF. These excited modes interfere with one another as they propagate along whole CSF length, giving rise to a multimode interference (MMI). Since the effective refractive index of the agarose gel changes with the ambient relative humidity, as the environmental refractive index changes, the propagation constants for each guided mode within the CSF will change too, which leads to shifts in the output spectra. The proposed sensor has a great potential in real time RH monitoring, exhibiting a large range of operation with good stability. For RH variations in the range between 60 %RH and 98.5 %RH, the sensor presents a maximum sensitivity of 44.2 pm/%RH, and taking in consideration the interrogation system, a resolution of 1.1% RH is acquired. This sensor can be of interest for applications where a control of high levels of relative humidity is required.
Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death in the world and its occurrence is closely related to arterial stiffness. Arterial stiffness is commonly evaluated by analysing the arterial pulse waveform and velocity, with electromechanical pressure transducers, in superficial arteries such as carotid, radial and femoral. In order to ease the acquisition procedure and increase the patients comfort during the measurements, new optical fibre techniques have been explored to be used in the reliable detection of arterial pulse waves, due to their small size, high sensitivity, electrical isolation and immunity to electromagnetic interference. More specifically, fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) are refractive index modulated structures engraved in the core of an optical fibre, which have a well-defined resonance wavelength that varies with the strain conditions of the medium, known as Bragg wavelength. In this work, FBGs were embedded in a commercial resin, producing films that were used to assess the arterial pulse in superficial locations such as carotid, radial and foot dorsum. The technique proved to be a promising, comfortable and trustworthy way to assess the arterial pulses, with all the optical fibre use advantages, in a non-intrusive biomedical sensing procedure. Examples of possible applications of the developed structures are smart skin structures to monitor arterial cardiovascular parameters, in a stable and reliable way, throughout daily activities or even during exams with high electromagnetic fields, such as magnetic resonance imaging.
There is a set of important selection criteria in the design of fiber optic sensors that determine the compromise between design complexity and performance. Optical fiber sensors not only withstand high temperatures, but they can also operate in different chemical and aqueous media allowing measurements in areas not otherwise accessible. A Fabry-Perot cavity based on an air bubble created in a multimode fiber section is proposed. The air bubble is formed using only cleaving and fusion splicing techniques. The parameters used to produce the microcavities were found empirically. Two different configurations are explored: an inline cavity formed between two sections of MMF, and a fiber tip sensor. In the last, after the air bubble is created, a cleave is made near the cavity, after which the sensor is subjected to several electrical arcs to reshape the cavity and obtain a thin diaphragm. The inline sensor, with a length of ~297 μm, was used to measure strain and presented a sensitivity of 6.48 pm/με. Regarding the fiber tip sensor, it was subjected to glycerin/water mixture variations, by immerging the sensing head in several solutions with different concentrations of water in glycerin. In this case, the sensor had a length of ~167 μm and a diaphragm thickness of ~20 μm. As expected, with the increase of the external medium refractive index, the sensor visibility decreased. Furthermore, a wavelength shift towards red was observed, with a sensitivity of 7.81 pm/%wt. Both devices exhibited low dependence to temperature (<1.8 pm/°C).
A Fabry-Perot air bubble microcavity fabricated between a section of single mode fiber and a multimode fiber is proposed. The study of the microcavities growth with the number of applied arcs is performed. The sensors are tested for lateral load and strain, where sensitivities of 0.32 nm/N and 2.11 nm/N and of 4.49 pm/με and 9.12 pm/με are obtained for the 47 μm and 161 μm long cavities, respectively. The way of manufacturing using a standard fusion splicer and given that no oils or etching solutions are involved, emerges as an alternative to the previously developed air bubble based sensors.
Fiber Bragg grating sensors were attached to the surface of a rechargeable lithium battery in order to monitor its thermal and strain fluctuations through charge and different discharge C rates. During the discharge process above 1C, it were observed, a temperature and strain fluctuations of a 4.12 ± 0.67 °C and 24.64 ± 6.02 με, respectively. In the regular charge process, a temperature and strain variation of 1.03 ± 0.67 °C and 15.86 ± 6.02 με, were detected.