The International Space Station/Japanese Exposure Module (ISS/JEM) borne instrument, the Superconducting
Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES), has successfully measured chemical species in the middle
atmosphere between October 2009 and April 2010. We focus on inorganic chlorine species measured inside the
late spring Antarctic vortex, when hydrogen chloride (HCl) was a main component of the total inorganic chlorine
(Cly). Comparisons with other satellite instruments, the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and Atmospheric
Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS), are also presented to show the SMILES HCl
and chlorine monoxide (ClO) data quality.
The successor of the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS), ILAS-II, aboard the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite-II (ADEOS-II) measured atmospheric absorption spectra at a wavelength region from 753 nm to 784 nm, including the molecular oxygen (O2) A-band centered at 762 nm, with a FWHM spectral resolution of 0.06 nm. Temperature and pressure profiles between ~10 km and 80 km were retrieved from the solar occultation measurements of the O2A-band spectra during the operational period of ADEOS-II in 2003. Based on the actual measured data during the smallest atmospheric variability, the repeatability of the measurement, which is a measure of the measurement precision, for temperature and pressure was estimated to be 1-2 K and 0.5-2%, respectively. Comparisons between ILAS-II and the U.K. Met. Office (UKMO) stratospheric analyses or the NASA's UARS/HALOE and TIMED/SABER temperature data are performed. Regardless of the good precision, it is found that the ILAS-II temperatures are systematically lower in the stratosphere and significantly higher in the lower mesosphere.
The Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer-II (ILAS-II) onboard the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite-II (ADEOS-II) was successfully launched on 14 December, 2002 from Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)'s Tanegashima Space Center. ILAS-II is a solar-occultation atmospheric sensor which measures vertical profiles of O3, HNO3, NO2, N2O, CH4, H2O, ClONO2, aerosol extinction coefficients etc. with four grating spectrometers. After the checkout period of the ILAS-II, ILAS-II started its routine operation since 2 April 2003 until 24 October 2003, when ADEOS-II lost its function due to solar-paddle failure. However, about 7 months of data were acquired by ILAS-II including whole period of Antarctic ozone hole in 2003 when ozone depletion was one of the largest up to now. ILAS-II successfully measured vertical profiles of ozone, nitric acid, nitrous oxide, and aerosol extinction coefficients due to Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) during this ozone hole period. The ILAS-II data with the latest data retrieval algorithm of Version 1.4 shows fairly good agreement with correlative ozonesonde measurements within 15% accuracy.
The Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer-II (ILAS-II) onboard the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite-II (ADEOS-II) was successfully launched on 14 December, 2002 from National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA)’s Tanegashima Space Center. ILAS-II is a solar-occupation atmospheric sensor which will measure vertical profiles of O3, HNO3, NO2, N2O, CH4, H2O, ClONO2, aerosol extinction coefficients, etc. with four grating spectrometers. After the checkout period of the ILAS-II which is scheduled in January-February, 2003, ILAS-II will make routine measurements from early April. An initial checkout (ICO) operation was done on 20-23 January, 2003. Data taken during the ICO period suggest that ILAS-II was functioning normally as designed. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for each channel showed good quality of the ILAS-II data except for Ch.3. Preliminary comparison of ILAS-II O3 profiles with ozonesondes showed good agreements. A validation campaign is scheduled to be taken place in Kiruna, Sweden in 2003, when several balloon-borne measurements are planned.
The Solar Occultation FTS for Inclined-orbit Satellite (SOFIS) is a solar occultation Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS), developed by the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) of Japan, that will be onboard the Global Change Observation Mission-A1 (GCOM-A1) satellite. GCOM-A1 will be placed in a 650km non-sun-synchronous orbit, with an inclination angle of 68 deg. SOFIS is the successor of ILAS-II, which will be onboard the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite-II (ADEOS-II). SOFIS measures atmospheric constituent vertical profiles with 0.24 cm-1 spectral resolution in 3-13 μm and 1 km vertical resolution. SOFIS will measure the global distribution of O3, HNO3, NO2, N2O, CH4, H2O, CO2, CFC-11, CFC-12, CIONO2, aerosol extinction, atmospheric pressure, and temperature. SOFIS uses a double-pass dual-pendulum type FTS with diode laser sampling system to reduce the size and weight. Two photo-voltaic (PV) MCT (HgCdTe) detectors and a pulse-tube cooler will achieve high linearity and low-noise performance. In addition, it has a visible (O2, A band) grating spectrometer for pressure and temperature retrieval and a sun-edge sensor for the tangent height position detection. We present the test results of FTS and detector assembly engineering model and describe the SOFIS/FTS calibration system.
The Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer-II (ILAS-II) is a satellite-borne solar occultation sensor developed by the Environment Agency of Japan for measuring ozone, other gas species, and aerosols/PSCs that are related to the ozone chemistry in the stratosphere. The ILAS-II instrument will be installed on board the ADEOS-II satellite that will be put into a sun-synchronous polar orbit by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) in November 2001. The ILAS-II measurement is a continuation of that of ILAS on board ADEOS, which obtained data from November 1996 to June 1997. The main components of ILAS-II are four spectrometers and a sun-edge sensor. The spectrometers include an infrared spectrometer to cover about 6 to 12 micrometer in wavelength, a mid-infrared spectrometer 3 to 5.7 micrometer, a narrow band spectrometer around 12.8 micrometer, and a visible spectrometer 753 to 784 nm. The first two spectrometers are used for measuring gas and aerosol/PSC profiles, while the third is for ClONO2 measurements. The visible spectrometer is used for pressure/temperature measurements as well as aerosol/PSC extinction coefficients. The ILAS_II instrument has already completed its development and environment tests, and now is undergoing satellite system environment tests at NASDA. This paper outlines the characteristics and performance results from laboratory tests along with the present status of development of its data processing algorithm and operational software.
A visible grating spectrometer of the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS) aboard the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) measured atmospheric absorption spectra at a wavelength region from 753 nm to 784 nm, including the molecular oxygen (O2) A-band centered at 762 nm, with a spectral resolution of 0.17 nm. Temperature and pressure profiles throughout the stratosphere were retrieved from the satellite solar occultation measurements of the O2 A-band absorption spectra. Based on simulation studies, root-sum-square errors associated with several systematic uncertainties in spectroscopic databases and instrument functions were estimated to be 4 K for temperature and 4% for pressure in the stratosphere. Current problems in this retrieval are also presented through comparisons with correlative temperature measurements.
The Solar Occultation FTS for Inclined-orbit Satellite (SOFIS) is a solar-occultation Fourier-transform spectrometer developed by the Environment Agency of Japan (EA). SOFIS onboard the Global Change Observation Mission-Al (GCOM-Al) satellite will be put into a 650 km non-sun-synchronous orbit with an inclination angle of 69 deg. GCOM-Al is scheduled to be launched in spring 2006. SOFIS is the successor of the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer-II (ILAS-II), which with travel onboard the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite-II (ADEOS-II). SOFIS will measure vertical profiles of atmospheric constituents with 0.2 cm-1 spectral resolution at 3 - 13 micrometer with 1 km vertical resolution. The scientific objective of SOFIS is to measure global vertical distributions of O3, N2O, CH4, CO2, H2O, HNO3, NO2, aerosols, CFC-11, CFC-12, and ClONO2. SOFIS uses a double-pass dual-pendulum type Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a diode laser sampling system to reduce the size and weight of the apparatus. Two photovoltaic (PV) HgCdTe (MCT) detectors and a pulse-tube cooler will provide high linearity and low-noise performance. SOFIS also has a visible (O2 A band) grating spectrometer for pressure and temperature retrieval and a sun- edge sensor for detecting the tangent height position. This paper describes the characteristics of SOFIS and test results of laboratory models of the FTS and the detector.
The Solar-Occultation FTS for Inclined-orbit Satellite (SOFIS) is an instrument for the next atmospheric remote sensing project proposed by the Environment Agency of Japan. The grating infrared spectrometer used by its predecessors (ILAS/ILAS-II) will be replaced with a Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) for higher spectral resolution. The three- dimensional distributions of greenhouse gases as well as those of atmospheric species related to stratospheric ozone depletion will be measured by solar occultation from an inclined-orbit satellite. A preliminary study was carried out to clarify the underlying problems in satellite-borne FTS measurement and to seek a proper method for processing the FTS data recorded by SOFIS.