In the present study, we fabricated novel electro-optic (EO) phase modulators using EO polymer waveguides and gold antenna arrays for continuous-wave terahertz (THz) detection. We used a cyclo-olefin polymer (COP) with very small absorption losses and low dielectric constants in the THz region as a substrate, enabling relatively large antenna size with small absorption loss for increasing modulation efficiency. By irradiating W-band (75-110 GHz) electromagnetic waves on the devices, we observed modulation sidebands in the measured optical spectra and successfully demonstrated the electromagnetic wave detection.
Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) is a promising biomaterial for several applications. Optical excitation of bR at an electrode-electrolyte interface generates differential photocurrents while an incident light is turned on and off. This unique functional response is similar to that seen in retinal neurons. The bR-based bipolar photosensor consists of the bR dip-coated thin films patterned on two ITO plates and the electrolyte solution. This bipolar photocell will function as a biomimetic photoreceptor cell. The bipolar structure, due to the photocurrent being generated in alignment with the cathodic direction, makes the excitatory and inhibitory regions possible. This scheme shows our bipolar cell can act as a basic unit of edge detection and forms the artificial visual receptive field.