The Wide Field Optical Spectrograph (WFOS) is one of the first-light instruments of Thirty Meter Telescope. It is a medium resolution, multi object, wide field optical spectrograph. Since 2005 the conceptual design of the instrument has focused on a slit-mask based, grating exchange design that will be mounted at the Nasmyth focus of TMT. Based on the experience with ESI, MOSFIRE and DEIMOS for Keck we know flexure related image motion will be a major problem with such a spectrograph and a compensation system is required to mitigate these effects.
We have developed a flexure Compensation and Simulation (FCS) tool for TMT-WFOS that provides an interface to accurately simulate the effects of instrument flexure at the WFOS detector plane (e.g image shifts) using perturbation of key optical elements and also derive corrective motions to compensate the image shifts caused by instrument flexure. We are currently using the tool to do mote-carlo simulations to validate the optical design of a slit-mask concept we call Xchange-WFOS, and to optimize the flexure compensation strategy. We intend to use the tool later in the design process to predict the actual flexure by replacing the randomized inputs with the signed displacement and rotations of each element predicted by global FEA model on the instrument..
The Wide Field Optical Spectrometer (WFOS) is a seeing limited, multi-object spectrograph and first light instrument for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) scheduled for first observations in 2027. The spectrograph will deliver a minimum resolution of R~5,000 over a simultaneous wavelength range of 310 nm to 1,000 nm with a multiplexing goal of between 20 and 700 targets. The WFOS team consisting of partners in China, India, Japan, and the United States has completed a trade study of two competing concepts intended to meet the design requirements derived from the WFOS detailed science case. The first of these design concepts is a traditional slit mask instrument capable of delivering R~1,000 for up to 100 simultaneous targets using 1 x 7 arc second slits, and a novel focal plane slicing method for R~5,000 on up to 20 simultaneous targets can be achieved by reformatting the 1 arc-second wide slits into three 0.3 arc-second slits projected next to each other in the spatial direction. The second concept under consideration is a highly multiplexed fiber based system utilizing a robotic fiber positioning system at the focal plane containing 700 individual collectors, and a cluster of up to 12 replicated spectrographs with a minimum resolution of R~5,000 over the full pass band. Each collecting element will contain a bundle of 19 fibers coupled to micro-lens arrays that allow for contiguous coverage of targets and adaptation of the f/15 telescope beam to f/3.2 for feeding the fiber system. This report describes the baseline WFOS design, provides an overview of the two trade study concepts, and the process used to down-select between the two options. Also included is a risk assessment regarding the known technical challenges in the selected design concept.
Hanle echelle spectrograph (HESP) is a high resolution, bench mounted, fiber-fed spectrograph at visible wavelengths. The instrument was recently installed at the 2m Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT), located at Indian Astronomical Observatory (IAO), Hanle at an altitude of 4500m. The telescope and the spectrograph are operated remotely from Bangalore,(∼ 3200km from Hanle), through a dedicated satellite link. HESP was designed and built by Kiwi Star Optics, Callaghan Innovation, New Zealand. The spectrograph has two spectral resolution modes (R=30000 and 60000). The low resolution mode uses a 100 micron fiber as a input slit and the high resolution mode is achieved using an image slicer. An R2 echelle grating, along with two cross dispersing prisms provide a continuous wavelength coverage between 350-1000nm. The spectrograph is enclosed in a thermally controlled environment and provides a stability of 200m/s during a night. A simultaneous thorium-argon calibration provides a radial velocity precision of 20m/s. Here, we present a design overview, performance and commissioning of the spectrograph.
Precision Doppler spectroscopy serves as an important tool for Radial Velocity (RV) observations of stars. High precision spectroscopy is bound by two major challenges, first being the instrument instability which is mainly caused by temperature and pressure variations and second, the limitations imposed by traditional wavelength calibration methods. In this work we report our progress on the development of a passively stabilized Fabry-Perot (FP) calibrator. We have designed and built an air-spaced etalon with 30 GHz free spectral range for accurately tracking the short-term drift of our high resolution (R = 60,000) Echelle spectrograph on Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT), Hanle. Instrument is built using off-the-shelf components, with the required temperature and pressure stability being achieved in initial test runs. For transporting light in and out of the vacuum system without incurring losses at fiber interconnects, we have used a simple way to insert a FC/APC connectorized fiber into the flange. We also present the results of transmission spectra of the FP taken with high resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer.
The polarization introduced due to Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) optics is calculated using an analytical model. Mueller matrices are also generated for each optical element using Zemax, based on which the instrumental polarization due to the entire system at the focal plane is estimated and compared with the analytical model. This study is significant in the estimation of the telescope sensitivity and also has great implications for future instruments.