Fractal analysis of an image is a mathematical approach to generate surface related features from an image or image tile that can be applied to image segmentation and to object recognition. In undersea target countermeasures, the targets of interest can appear as anomalies in a variety of contexts, visually different textures on the seafloor. In this paper, we evaluate the use of fractal dimension as a primary feature and related characteristics as secondary features to be extracted from synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) imagery for the purpose of target detection. We develop three separate methods for computing fractal dimension. Tiles with targets are compared to others from the same background textures without targets. The different fractal dimension feature methods are tested with respect to how well they can be used to detect targets vs. false alarms within the same contexts. These features are evaluated for utility using a set of image tiles extracted from a SAS data set generated by the U.S. Navy in conjunction with the Office of Naval Research. We find that all three methods perform well in the classification task, with a fractional Brownian motion model performing the best among the individual methods. We also find that the secondary features are just as useful, if not more so, in classifying false alarms vs. targets. The best classification accuracy overall, in our experimentation, is found when the features from all three methods are combined into a single feature vector.