A miniature endomicroscope is presented that combines a large field-of-view (up to 1.7 mm) for OCT-imaging and a high-resolution mode with 360 μm field-of-view (NA = 0.5) for multi-photon fluorescence or OCT imaging. The 4.7x magnification variation is achieved by the axial positioning of an inner micro-optical lens group using an integrated electro-magnetic z-actuator. A reverse fiber-optic piezotube-scanner with minimized length is employed for the image acquisition by resonant spiral scanning. With the probe diameter of 2.7 mm and a rigid length of about 60 mm, the approach may pave the way to clinical applications of these two modalities in a single probe.
The increased demand for mobile systems using low-power electronics leads to a need for new power sources.
Using batteries as power source may be inapplicable in distributed systems like wireless sensor networks because
the batteries have to be exchanged frequently. Energy Harvesting systems are one possible energy source for
such systems exploiting environmental energy like mechanical vibrations. One good solution to convert vibration
energy is the use of piezoelectric generators usually realised as piezoelectric bending beams.
The generators convert mechanical energy to electrical energy due to resulting strain of the element. However,
the power output of piezoelectric generators is a challenging task even if low-power applications have to be driven.
Due to the low electric power output of piezoelectric generators, it is an important task to obtain a suitable
geometric design of the transducer element. Beside the element dimensions the electric power output depends
on the input excitation as well as on the electric load to be powered.
To analyse the system behaviour, input variables and the generator itself have to be described in a mathematical
model. This enables the calculation of optimal elements in principle. A modal electro-mechanical model
of the piezoelectric element assuming to be base-excited is used in this paper. Although the modal model is very
helpful to analyse the system, it cannot be easy used to determine a proper design of the piezoelectric elements.
The problem is that the parameters of the model do not show any apparent relations to geometric dimensions
or material data. Therefore, a mathematical method to obtain the parameters from the physical properties of
a piezoelectric bending element is briefly described. The knowledge of the link between physical and modal
parameters allows the usage of the mathematical model as a qualified design method. The input parameters of
the linked model are the material data which can be found on data sheets. Additionally, boundary conditions
of the environment like the impedance of the driven load and the vibration excitation has to be specified. The
linked model shows the influences on power output to connected electric loads. The given power demands of
applications which have to be satisfied yields in a design space of suitable elements. The design method enables
the development engineer to select piezoelectric generator elements.
In smart and adaptive structures very often piezoceramic elements are used as sensors or actuators. If these elements are used as actuators, an optimized bonding is necessary for a good efficiency of the overall system. In experiments it was observed, that the quality of the bonding depends on several factors. Therefore, a systematic investigation of the problem is given in the present paper both theoretically and experimentally. The main focus of the paper is to elaborate a simple measurement both of the bonding thickness and of the overall coupling efficiency between the piezoceramic element and the elastic structure. In the paper it is shown that by measuring the electric impedance at different frequency bands it can easily be seen if a bonding is good or bad. The experimental results are compared with theoretical models. One of the main results is that the thickness of the bonding layer should be small, because the loss of the electric field in the ceramic due to the additional capacity between actuator and structure is most important if a nonconductive adhesive is used.