MICADO will equip the E-ELT with a first light capability for diffraction limited imaging at near-infrared wavelengths. The instrument’s observing modes focus on various flavours of imaging, including astrometric, high contrast, and time resolved. There is also a single object spectroscopic mode optimised for wavelength coverage at moderately high resolution. This contribution provides an overview of the key functionality of the instrument, outlining the scientific rationale for its observing modes. The interface between MICADO and the adaptive optics system MAORY that feeds it is summarised. The design of the instrument is discussed, focusing on the optics and mechanisms inside the cryostat, together with a brief overview of the other key sub-systems.
We present the current status of the design of the science data reduction pipeline and the corresponding dataflow system for METIS. It will be one of the first three instruments for the E-ELT and work at wavelengths between 3-19 μm (L/M/N/Q1 bands). We will deliver software which is compliant to standards of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), and will employ state of the art techniques to produce science grade data, master calibration frames, quality control parameters and to handle instrument effects. The Instrument currently offers a wealth of observing modes that are listed in this paper. Data reduction for a ground based instrument at these wavelengths is particularly challenging because of the massive influence of thermal radiation from various sources. We will give a comprehensive overview of the data ow system for the imaging modes that the instrument offers and discuss a single recipe versus a multi recipe approach for the different observing modes for imaging.
MATISSE is foreseen as a mid-infrared spectro-interferometer combining the beams of up to four UTs/ATs of the Very
Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) of the European Southern Observatory. The related science case study
demonstrates the enormous capability of a new generation mid-infrared beam combiner.
MATISSE will constitute an evolution of the two-beam interferometric instrument MIDI. MIDI is a very successful
instrument which offers a perfect combination of spectral and angular resolution. New characteristics present in
MATISSE will give access to the mapping and the distribution of the material (typically dust) in the circumstellar
environments by using a wide mid-infrared band coverage extended to L, M and N spectral bands. The four beam
combination of MATISSE provides an efficient UV-coverage : 6 visibility points are measured in one set and 4 closure
phase relations which can provide aperture synthesis images in the mid-infrared spectral regime.
A first generation of VLTI (Very Large Telescopes Interferometer) focal instruments, AMBER in the near-infrared and MIDI in the mid-infrared, has been already integrated and tested. New and important science results have been obtained. These instruments combine two (for MIDI) or three (for AMBER) beams coming from the eight telescopes installed at Cerro Paranal (four 8-meters and four 1.8-meters telescopes). In order to improve the capabilities of the interferometer and to engage a new scientific prospective, the second generation of VLTI instruments is currently under study. MATISSE belongs to this second generation. MATISSE objective is the image reconstruction. It will extend the astrophysical potential of the VLTI by overcoming the ambiguities existing in the interpretation of simple visibility measurements. It is a spectro-interferometer combining up to four beams with a large spectral coverage ranging from 3 to 25 μm (L, M, N and Q bands). Different spectral resolutions (between 30 and 1500) are foreseen. MATISSE will measure closure phase relations thus offering an efficient capability for image reconstruction. The concept of MATISSE is presented in this paper. The recombination mode of MATISSE is similar to the AMBER beam combination, but has been adapted to the constraints specific to the mid-infrared domain.
Our objective is the development of mid-infrared imaging at the VLTI. The related science case study demonstrates the enormous capability of a new generation mid-infrared beam combiner. MATISSE will constitute an evolution of the two-beam interferometric instrument MIDI by increasing the number of recombined beams up to four. MIDI is a very successful instrument which offers a perfect combination of spectral and angular resolution. New characteristics present in MATISSE will give access to the mapping and the distribution of the material (typically dust) in the circumstellar environments by using a wide mid-infrared band coverage extended to L, M, N and Q spectral bands. The four beam combination of MATISSE provides an efficient UV-coverage: 6 visibility points are measured in one set and 4 closure phase relations which can provide for the first time aperture synthesis images in the mid-infrared spectral regime. The mid-infrared spectral domain is very relevant for the study of the environment of various astrophysical sources. Our science case studies show the wide field of applications of MATISSE. They will be illustrated in the first part of this presentation through the perspective of imaging the circumstellar environments/discs of young stellar objects. The MATISSE characteristics will be given in a second part of the presentation.
After two years of official operation as a facility instrument on the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI)
the MID-infrared Interferometric instrument (MIDI) has provided a great wealth of new results. The number of
AGNs observed and the diversity of targets requested for observations are beyond expectations and illustrate the
success of the instrument concept. We will outline the scientific issues recently addressed by MIDI and present
briefly the potential ones.
We report on observations of circumstellar disks around young stars that have been obtained with the MIDI instrument, which is mounted on the VLT Interferometer and operates in the 10 μm atmospheric window. The maximum spatial resolution of 5 milli-arcsec corresponds to sub-AU scales at the distance to nearby star formation regions. Thus, we can study the disks on the spatial scales at which important processes occur, such as accretion, dust processing, and planet formation. The main results obtained so far can be summarized as follows: 1. The measured interferometric visibilities are in good qualitative agreement with those predicted by models of circumstellar disks. In particular, a predicted correlation between the strength of the far-infrared excess and the spatial structure of the disk is confirmed by direct measurements; 2. In several objects strong evidence for deviations from circular symmetry is present, indicating that an inclined disk is indeed the dominant component seen in the mid-infrared; 3. The dust properties are not uniform over the disk, but are instead a strong function of distance to the central star. The dust in the innermost disk regions is observed to be more "processed" than the dust further out, both in Herbig Ae star disks and in those around T Tauri stars.