In this study, we present a direct detection distributed acoustic sensor based on phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometer (φ-OTDR) with long sensing range and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which is field-tested over a 50 kmlong fiber. Due to the random nature of Rayleigh backscattered light and fading phenomena, it is hard to characterize the performance of the system. For this reason, the performance of our sensor is specified in a statistical manner in which the mean SNR is determined using the histograms of the SNR. The SNR values are measured for identical acoustic signals in five different days, total of 48 hours and the SNR histograms are obtained for fiber distances of 100 m, 12 km, 21 km, 30 km, 40 km and 50 km. The system is field-tested using external disturbances that are generated from a 50-Hz vibrator. The SNR values are extracted from the power spectral density (psd) of the collected data over the monitored fiber span. Our results show that the φ-OTDR system exhibits a mean SNR of 22.5 dB at 50 km distance.
We present results on the comparison of different THz technologies for the detection and identification of a variety of
explosives from our laboratory tests that were carried out in the framework of NATO SET-193 “THz technology for
stand-off detection of explosives: from laboratory spectroscopy to detection in the field” under the same controlled
conditions. Several laser-pumped pulsed broadband THz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) systems as well as one
electronic frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) device recorded THz spectra in transmission and/or
In this paper we present our efforts on the design, fabrication and characterization of high-speed, visible-blind, GaN-based ultra-violet (UV) photodiodes using indium-tin-oxide (ITO) Schottky contacts. ITO is known as a transparent conducting material for the visible and near infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. We have investigated the optical properties of thin ITO films in the ultraviolet spectrum. The transmission and reflection measurements showed that thin ITO films had better transparencies than thin Au films for wavelengths greater than 280 nm. Using a microwave compatible fabrication process, we have fabricated Au and ITO based Schottky photodiodes on n-/n+ GaN epitaxial layers. We have made current-voltage (I-V), spectral quantum efficiency, and high-speed characterization of the fabricated devices. I-V characterization showed us that the Au-Schottky samples had better electrical characteristics mainly due to the larger Schottky barrier. However, due to the better optical transparency, ITO-Schottky devices exhibited higher quantum efficiencies compared to Au-Schottky devices. ITO-Schottky photodiodes with ~80 nm thick ITO films resulted in a maximum quantum efficiency of 47%, whereas Au-Schottky photodiode samples with ~10 nm thick Au films displayed a maximum efficiency of 27% in the visible-blind spectrum. UV/visible rejection ratios over three orders of magnitude were obtained for both samples. High-frequency characterization of the devices was performed via pulse-response measurements at 360 nm. ITO-Schottky photodiodes showed excellent high-speed characteristics with rise times as small as 12 psec and RC-time constant limited pulse-widths of 60 psec.