Over the last decade industrial ultrafast lasers with pulse durations between 300 fs and 10 ps, average output powers of up to 150 W and single pulse energies in the range of 10 to 250 μJ have been deployed in various industrial applications that require microscopic material removal within small areas with minimum heat affected zones. This paper will provide a detailed understanding of the influence of laser wavelength, pulse duration, pulse fluence and the temporal distribution of the laser pulses (i.e. seeder burst mode operation) on the speed and quality of the machining process. Experimental data for more than 25 materials commonly used in micro-machining applications have led to guidelines for optimizing ultrafast laser machining processes. A review of the industrial ultrafast laser market and a discussion of the main applications are also provided.