The field of plasmonics has the potential to enable unique applications in the mid-infrared (IR) wavelength range. However, as is the case regardless of wavelength, the choice of plasmonic material has significant implications for the ultimate utility of any plasmonic device or structure. In this manuscript, we review the wide range of available plasmonic and phononic materials for mid-IR wavelengths, looking in particular at transition metal nitrides, transparent conducting oxides, silicides, doped semiconductors, and even newer plasmonic materials such as graphene. We also include in our survey materials with strong mid-IR phonon resonances, such as GaN, GaP, SiC, and the perovskite SrTiO3, all of which can support plasmon-like modes over limited wavelength ranges. We will discuss the suitability of each of these plasmonic and phononic materials, as well as the more traditional noble metals for a range of structures and applications and will discuss the potential and limitations of alternative plasmonic materials at these IR wavelengths.