Some of optical telescopes and millimeter- and submillimeter-wave telescopes are constructed on the top of the mountains which are higher than 4,000 meters above sea level, in order to prevent light from absorbing and diffusing and to avoid the influence of bad weather. These telescopes can observe light under much better condition in comparison to that on level ground, however, there are issues that labor efficiency is decreased by the low air pressure (less than two thirds of that on level ground) and the snowsuit and gloves which make difficult to move the body and fingers. Also, in case of a trouble, it may delay the initial response because of altitude and far distance from the base, so, as a result of this, the observation schedule may be forced to change. To solve these problems, we Mitsubishi Electric Corp. are tackling on development of the remote-controlled robot system which can make the labor efficiency in highland similar to that on level ground and minimize the traveling time to move the workers to the sites. In this paper, we introduce overview of the developed remote-controlled robot "DiaroiDTM" which can substitute the labor's work in the sites, and several demonstrations which the robot performed with this remotecontrolled robot and its control system are introduced.
The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) is expected to reveal the birth of galaxies, planetary surfaces and even the atmospheric composition of exoplanets. The TMT is an optical infrared reflecting telescope that uses very large hydrostatic bearings in the drive units. High precision is required for the sliding surface of the hydrostatic bearing. In the case of TMT, the radius of the hydrostatic bearing of the elevation journal is about 10 meters and it cannot be manufactured as an integral structure, so has a segmented structure. The size of each member of the segmented structure exceeds 10 meters. When high precision machining of about 30 micrometers is performed on the large structure exceeding 10 meters, it may take several days for a single process, which is greatly affected by changes in ambient temperature. Changes in ambient temperature not only cause thermal expansion and contraction of the workpiece, but also cause deformation of the machine tool. There are only a few large machine tools that can process parts over 10 meters in size. We constructed a temperaturecontrolled chamber that covers the large machine tool to prevent ambient temperature fluctuations. We compared the accuracy of machining in a room temperature (variable temperature) environment and machining in a constant temperature environment. This result demonstrates that machining errors can be suppressed in a constant temperature environment. In addition, this paper also shows the results of combining machining and the use of abrasive paper to finish the sliding surface, which improved the surface roughness without deforming the shape of the machined sliding surface. By using these improved machining methods, we were able to establish a precision machining method for large structures.
For the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) that aims high-resolution and high-sensitivity observations for optical-infrared astronomy, detailed design is underway for Telescope Structure System (STR) including the mount control system and the segment handling system. The technical requirements for the STR system are very challenging on its performance and interface condition with telescope-mounted optics and observation instruments. The major challenging technical requirements include low flexure of mirror support structure and low optical path length variation due to gravitational deformation, high seismic performance against large earthquake, very accurate mount drive control for high tracking and guiding performance, and fast, safe and labor-saving segment exchange. To meet these technical requirements, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO) has made a detailed design and technology development. In this paper, overview of major key technologies is introduced that is adopted for the TMT telescope structure in the detailed design and technology development.
SHS (Segment Handling System) is the subsystem implemented on the telescope. One of the key technologies of SHS is our force control technology applied to Segment Mirror Exchange Robot, which makes it possible to achieve safe and reliable mirror segment exchange as shown in Video 1.
Segment Handling System (SHS) is the subsystem that is planned to be permanently implemented on Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) telescope structure that enables fast, efficient, semi-automatic exchange of M1 segments. TMT plans challenging segment exchange (10 segments per 10 hours a day). To achieve these, MELCO develops innovative SHS by accommodating Factory Automation (FA) technology such as force control system and machine vision system into the system. Force control system used for install operation, achieves soft handling by detecting force exerted to mirror segment and automatically compensating the position error between handling segments and primary mirror. Machine vision system used for removal operation, achieves semi-automatic positioning between SHS and mirror segments to be handled. Prototype experience proves soft (extraneous force ~300N) and fast (~3 minutes) segment handling. The SHS will provide upcoming segmented large telescopes for cost-efficient, effortless, and safe segment exchange operation.
We present an overview of the preliminary design of the Telescope Structure System (STR) of Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). NAOJ was given responsibility for the TMT STR in early 2012 and engaged Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO) to take over the preliminary design work. MELCO performed a comprehensive preliminary design study in 2012 and 2013 and the design successfully passed its Preliminary Design Review (PDR) in November 2013 and April 2014. Design optimizations were pursued to better meet the design requirements and improvements were made in the designs of many of the telescope subsystems as follows: 1. 6-legged Top End configuration to support secondary mirror (M2) in order to reduce deformation of the Top End and to keep the same 4% blockage of the full aperture as the previous STR design. 2. “Double Lower Tube” of the elevation (EL) structure to reduce the required stroke of the primary mirror (M1) actuators to compensate the primary mirror cell (M1 Cell) deformation caused during the EL angle change in accordance with the requirements. 3. M1 Segment Handling System (SHS) to be able to make removing and installing 10 Mirror Segment Assemblies per day safely and with ease over M1 area where access of personnel is extremely difficult. This requires semi-automatic sequence operation and a robotic Segment Lifting Fixture (SLF) designed based on the Compliance Control System, developed for controlling industrial robots, with a mechanism to enable precise control within the six degrees of freedom of position control. 4. CO2 snow cleaning system to clean M1 every few weeks that is similar to the mechanical system that has been used at Subaru Telescope. 5. Seismic isolation and restraint systems with respect to safety; the maximum acceleration allowed for M1, M2, tertiary mirror (M3), LGSF, and science instruments in 1,000 year return period earthquakes are defined in the requirements. The Seismic requirements apply to any EL angle, regardless of the operational status of Hydro Static Bearing (HSB) system and stow lock pins. In order to find a practical solution, design optimization study for seismic risk mitigation was carried out extensively, including the performing of dynamic response analyses of the STR system under the time dependent acceleration profile of seven major earthquakes. The work is now moving to the final design phase from April 2014 for two years.
Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) is an 870 Mega pixel prime focus camera for the 8.2 m Subaru telescope. The wide field corrector delivers sharp image of 0.25 arc-sec FWHM in r-band over the entire 1.5 degree (in diameter) field of view. The collimation of the camera with respect to the optical axis of the primary mirror is realized by hexapod actuators whose mechanical accuracy is few microns. As a result, we expect to have seeing limited image most of the time. Expected median seeing is 0.67 arc-sec FWHM in i-band. The sensor is a p-ch fully depleted CCD of 200 micron thickness (2048 x 4096 15 μm square pixel) and we employ 116 of them to pave the 50 cm focal plane. Minimum interval between exposures is roughly 30 seconds including reading out arrays, transferring data to the control computer and saving them to the hard drive. HSC uniquely features the combination of large primary mirror, wide field of view, sharp image and high sensitivity especially in red. This enables accurate shape measurement of faint galaxies which is critical for planned weak lensing survey to probe the nature of dark energy. The system is being assembled now and will see the first light in August 2012.
Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) is the next generation wide-field imager for the prime focus of Subaru Telescope,
which is scheduled to receive its first light in 2011. Combined with a newly built wide-field corrector, HSC
covers 1.5 degree diameter field of view with 116 fully-depleted CCDs. In this presentation, we summarize the
details of the camera design: the wide-field corrector, the prime focus unit, the CCD dewar and the peripheral
devices. The wide-field corrector consists of 5 lenses with lateral shift type doublet ADC element. The novel
design guarantees the excellent image quality (D80 <0".3) over the field of view. On the focal plane, 116 CCDs
are tiled on the cold plate which is made of Silicon Carbide (SiC) and cooled down to -100 degrees by two pulse
tube coolers. The system is supported by the prime focus unit which provides a precise motion of the system to
align the wide-field corrector and the CCD dewar to the optical axis of the telescope.