The Simons Observatory (SO) will make precision temperature and polarization measurements of the cosmic
microwave background (CMB) using a series of telescopes which will cover angular scales between 1 arcminute
and tens of degrees, contain over 40,000 detectors, and sample frequencies between 27 and 270 GHz. SO will
consist of a six-meter-aperture telescope coupled to over 20,000 detectors along with an array of half-meter
aperture refractive cameras, coupled to an additional 20,000+ detectors. The unique combination of large and
small apertures in a single CMB observatory, which will be located in the Atacama Desert at an altitude of
5190 m, will allow us to sample a wide range of angular scales over a common survey area. SO will measure
fundamental cosmological parameters of our universe, find high redshift clusters via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect,
constrain properties of neutrinos, and seek signatures of dark matter through gravitational lensing. The complex
set of technical and science requirements for this experiment has led to innovative instrumentation solutions
which we will discuss. The large aperture telescope will couple to a cryogenic receiver that is 2.4 m in diameter
and over 2 m long, creating a number of interesting technical challenges. Concurrently, we are designing an array
of half-meter-aperture cryogenic cameras which also have compelling design challenges. We will give an overview
of the drivers for and designs of the SO telescopes and the cryogenic cameras that will house the cold optical
components and detector arrays.
The Advanced Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (AdvACT) is an upgraded instrument for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, which uses transition-edge sensor (TES) detector arrays to measure cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization anisotropies in multiple frequency bands. We review the integration and characterization of the final polarimeter array, which is the low frequency (LF) array, consisting of 292 TES bolometers observing in two bands centered at 27 GHz and 39 GHz. This array is sensitive to synchrotron radiation from our galaxy as well as to the CMB, and complements the AdvACT arrays operating at 90, 150 and 230 GHz to provide robust detection and removal of foreground contamination. We present detector parameters for the LF array measured in the lab, including saturation powers, critical temperatures, thermal conductivities, time constants and optical efficiencies, and their uniformity across the entire wafer.
The Simons Observatory (SO) will measure the cosmic microwave background (CMB) in both temperature and polarization over a wide range of angular scales and frequencies from 27-270 GHz with unprecedented sensitivity. One technology for coupling light onto the ~50 detector wafers that SO will field is spline-profiled feedhorns, which offer tunability between coupling efficiency and control of beam polarization leakage effects. We will present efforts to scale up feedhorn production for SO and their viability for future CMB experiments, including direct-machining metal feedhorn arrays and laser machining stacked Si arrays.
The Advanced Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter is an upgraded receiver for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, which has begun making measurements of the small angular scale polarization anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background using the first of four new multichroic superconducting detector arrays. Here, we review all details of the optimization and characterization of this first array, which features 2012 AlMn transition- edge sensor bolometers operating at 150 and 230 GHz. We present critical temperatures, thermal conductivities, saturation powers, time constants, and sensitivities for the array. The results show high uniformity across the 150 mm wafer and good performance in the field.
The Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) upgrade on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) consists of multichroic
Transition Edge Sensor (TES) detector arrays to measure the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization
anisotropies in multiple frequency bands. The first AdvACT detector array, sensitive to both 150 and 230 GHz, is
fabricated on a 150 mm diameter wafer and read out with a completely different scheme compared to ACTPol.
Approximately 2000 TES bolometers are packed into the wafer leading to both a much denser detector density and
readout circuitry. The demonstration of the assembly and integration of the AdvACT arrays is important for the next
generation CMB experiments, which will continue to increase the pixel number and density. We present the detailed
assembly process of the first AdvACT detector array.
Advanced ACTPol is an instrument upgrade for the six-meter Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) designed to
measure the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization with arcminute-scale angular
resolution. To achieve its science goals, Advanced ACTPol utilizes a larger readout multiplexing factor than any
previous CMB experiment to measure detector arrays with approximately two thousand transition-edge sensor
(TES) bolometers in each 150 mm detector wafer. We present the implementation and testing of the Advanced
ACTPol time-division multiplexing readout architecture with a 64-row multiplexing factor. This includes testing
of individual multichroic detector pixels and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexing
chips as well as testing and optimizing of the integrated readout electronics. In particular, we describe the new
automated multiplexing SQUID tuning procedure developed to select and optimize the thousands of SQUID
parameters required to readout each Advanced ACTPol array. The multichroic detector pixels in each array
use separate channels for each polarization and each of the two frequencies, such that four TESes must be read
out per pixel. Challenges addressed include doubling the number of detectors per multiplexed readout channel
compared to ACTPol and optimizing the Nyquist inductance to minimize detector and SQUID noise aliasing.